• High School Language Arts -- Freshman Language Arts

    A - Reading Literary Text

    • cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text
    • determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone)
    • analyze how an author's choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise
    • analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare)
    • analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature
    • analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme
    • determine a theme or central idea of a text and closely analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text
    • analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums (e.g., Auden's poem "Musee des Beaux Arts" and Breughel's painting Landscape with the Fall of Icarus), including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment
    • read and comprehend literature and literary nonfiction, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range, by the end of grade 9

    B - Reading Informational Text

    • analyze in detail how an author's ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter)
    • analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them
    • determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper)
    • delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning
    • determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose
    • cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text
    • read and comprehend informational texts in the grades 9-10 text complexity band proficiently by the end of grade 9
    • determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text
    • analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person's life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account
    • analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washington's Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, Roosevelt's Four Freedoms speech, King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail," Nelson Mandela's Nobel Peace Prize Speech, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights), including how they address related themes and concepts

    C - Writing

    • gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citations
    • draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research
    • write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence
    • write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences
    • write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content
    • conduct short, as well as more sustained, research projects to answer questions (including self- generated questions) or solve problems; narrow or broaden inquiries when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subjects, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation
    • develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audienceuse technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology's capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically
    • produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience
    • write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events, using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences

    D - Speaking and Listening

    • integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, and orally), evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source
    • adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate
    • present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task
    • evaluate and/or reflect on a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence
    • initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (e.g., one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively
    • make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest

    E - Language

    • apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, to comprehend more fully when reading or listening
    • determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9-10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies
    • acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression
    • demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing
    • demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking
    • demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings

  • High School Language Arts -- Sophomore Language Arts

    A - Reading Literary Text

    • cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text
    • analyze how an author's choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise
    • analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums (e.g., Auden's poem "Musee des Beaux Arts" and Breughel's painting Landscape with the Fall of Icarus), including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment
    • determine a theme or central idea of text and closely analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text
    • analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature
    • determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone)
    • analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme
    • read and comprehend literature and literary nonfiction, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range, by the end of grade 10
    • analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare)

    B - Reading Informational Text

    • delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning
    • read and comprehend informational texts at the high end of the grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently, by the end of grade 10
    • determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text
    • analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washington's Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, Roosevelt's Four Freedoms speech, King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail," Nelson Mandela's Nobel Peace Prize Speech, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights), including how they address related themes and concepts
    • analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person's life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account
    • determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper)
    • analyze in detail how an author's ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter)
    • determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose
    • cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text
    • analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them

    C - Writing

    • gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citations
    • write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events, using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences
    • write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence
    • produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience
    • write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content
    • use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology's capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically
    • develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience
    • draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research
    • write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences
    • conduct short, as well as more sustained, research projects to answer questions (including self- generated questions) or solve problems; narrow or broaden the inquiries when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subjects, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation

    D - Speaking and Listening

    • evaluate and/or reflect on a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence
    • present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task
    • integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source
    • adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate
    • make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest
    • initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (e.g., one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively

    E - Language

    • acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression
    • demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings
    • demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing
    • apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening
    • demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking
    • determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9-10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies

  • High School Language Arts -- 11th Grade American Literature and Composition

    A - Reading Literary Text

    • demonstrate knowledge of 18th, 19th, and early 20th-century foundational works (of American literature, British literature, world literature, or multicultural literature), including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics
    • determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful (include Shakespeare as well as other authors)
    • determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text
    • analyze a case in which grasping point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement)
    • read and comprehend literature and literary nonfiction, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 11-12 CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range, by the end of grade 11
    • analyze how an author's choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact
    • analyze the impact of the author's choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed)
    • cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain
    • analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist)

    B - Reading Informational Text

    • integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem
    • analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging
    • read and comprehend informational texts in the grades 11-CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range, by the end of grade 11 
    • determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text
    • determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness, or beauty of the text
    • cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain
    • analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text
    • analyze foundational U.S. documents (and comparable documents for British literature, American literature, and Multicultural literature) of historical and literary significance (including The Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, The Bill of Rights, and Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address) for their themes, purposes, and rhetorical features
    • determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines 'faction' in Federalist 10)
    • delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning (e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents) and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist presidential addresses)

    C - Writing

    • draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research
    • gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citations
    • write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence
    • develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience
    • conduct short, as well as more sustained, research projects to answer questions (including self- generated questions) or solve problems; narrow or broaden the inquiries when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subjects, demonstrating understanding of the subjects under investigation 
    • produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience
    • write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences
    • use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information
    • write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content
    • write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences 

    D - Speaking and Listening

    • initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (e.g., one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11-12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively
    • make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest
    • integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, and orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data
    • present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks
    • evaluate a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used
    • adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating a command of formal English when indicated or appropriate

    E - Language

    • demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing
    • determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 11-12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies
    • apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening 
    • demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings
    • demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking
    • acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression

  • High School Language Arts -- 12th Grade British Literature and Composition

    A - Reading Literary Text

    • analyze the impact of the author's choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed)
    • cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain
    • determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful (include Shakespeare as well as other authors)
    • demonstrate knowledge of 18th, 19th, and early 20th-century foundational works (of American literature, British literature, world literature, or multicultural literature), including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics
    • analyze a case in which grasping point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement)
    • analyze how an author's choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact
    • analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text (include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist)
    • read and comprehend literature and literary nonfiction, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 11-12 CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently, by the end of grade 12
    • determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text

    B - Reading Informational Text

    • analyze foundational documents of historical and literary significance for their themes, purposes, and rhetorical features
    • determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist 10)
    • determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text 
    • delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning (e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents) and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses)
    • analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging
    • read and comprehend informational texts at the high end of the grades 11-12 CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently, by the end of grade 12
    • analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text
    • integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem
    • determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness, or beauty of the text
    • cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain

    C - Writing

    • write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events, using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences
    • write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content
    • draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research
    • write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences
    • write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence
    • gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation 
    • conduct short, as well as more sustained, research projects to answer questions (including self- generated questions) or solve problems; narrow or broaden the inquiries when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subjects, demonstrating understanding of the subjects under investigation
    • develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience
    • produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience
    • use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information

    D - Speaking and Listening

    • integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data
    • initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (e.g., one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11-12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively
    • evaluate a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used
    • make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest
    • adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating a command of formal English when indicated or appropriate
    • present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks

    E - Language

    • demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings
    • demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking
    • determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 11-12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies
    • apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening 
    • acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression
    • demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing

  • High School Language Arts -- Advanced Composition

    A - Academic and Analytical Writing

    • draw inferences from a variety of sources (i.e., print, media, internet, and electronic databases)
    • distinguish between formal and informal fallacies to evaluate the validity and soundness of arguments in the text
    • synthesize and evaluate the quality of collected information by critically analyzing the value and credibility of the sources
    • apply principles of inductive and deductive reasoning to arguments
    • conduct research using a broad range of sources by utilizing secondary and primary methods of research such as databases, open sources, keyword searches, and interviews
    • identify cultural and social impacts communicated through diverse texts or sources
    • analyze ethical issues in academic writing (i.e., literary and informational)
    • gather, report, and evaluate information; manage and appropriately document sources
    • analyze multiple writings from appropriate academic publications distinguishing between factual and opinion statements

    B - Business and Industry Writing

    • respond to constructive peer and community feedback through refinement and revision of the work (i.e., target group feedback)
    • critique multiple writings from diverse business professions (i.e., counterclaims and opposing viewpoints)
    • conduct primary and secondary research relevant to the topic; integrate appropriate sources using APA style
    • analyze the impact of propaganda and other manipulations of rhetoric in texts
    • analyze ethical issues in writing from a real-world lens (e.g., current events, societal and environmental issues)
    • examine and apply writing in professional and disciplinary contexts using evidence to support claims and arguments
    • develop a scope of work, determine research methods, and analyze data with a team
    • analyze images as text; evaluate and incorporate reference documents into researched works
    • evaluate audience, purpose, and/or situations as they apply to business writing contexts (i.e., emails, proposals, spreadsheets, and reports)

    C - Technical and Informational Writing

    • analyze and infer technical data (e.g., forms of charts, graphs) to draw conclusions 
    • synthesize writing and rhetoric through reading, analysis, and reflection
    • compare and contrast a variety of genres and contexts, both formal and informal
    • identify and explain an author's use of text features (e.g., headings, subheadings, captions, footnotes, digital menus)
    • determine purposes for various technical documents and write effective technical documents by incorporating editorial changes and user feedback
    • research and consult a variety of source material and exemplar texts that model effective technical and information writing for a specific purpose (e.g., resume, cover letters, evaluative feedback, instructional articles, executive summaries)
    • examine multiple digital technologies to compose for different purposes; apply visual communication principles specific to industry standards

    D - Language and Organization in Writing

    • adapt tone and style for appropriate writing purposes
    • demonstrate understanding and mastery of standard written English as well as stylistic maturity in writing
    • incorporate specific processes (i.e., research, invention, writing, revision, and editing) into all writing tasks through multiple drafts
    • utilize discipline-specific denotative and connotative aspects of vocabulary to effectively communicate claims
    • produce expository, analytical, and/or argumentative writing that introduces a complex central idea and develops it with appropriate, specific evidence drawn from primary and/or secondary sources, cogent explanations, and clear transitions
    • demonstrate understanding of the conventions of citing primary and secondary sources
    • identify and analyze the structure of arguments and their impactful placements within texts
    • utilize unique grammatical components for industry-specific work (i.e., active voice passive voice)
    • progress effectively through the writing process with careful attention to structure and organization

    E - Presentation

    • utilize persuasive and extemporaneous speaking skills
    • initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions building on others' ideas and expressing their own viewpoints clearly and persuasively
    • present components created into a final product that can be utilized to showcase the presenter's professional identity to an outside audience and potential employers 
    • demonstrate topic control and limitation by adjusting the speaking rate to match purpose and emphasis for the impact of delivery
    • utilize traditional and digital communication by learning about the applications and preferred usages of those media
    • design accurate and visually appealing components to engage the audience and enhance the presentation's purpose (e.g., images, charts, graphs, documents)
    • identify and evaluate diverse and effective communication goals (i.e., tone, style, and form) necessary for interested audiences
    • create and sustain a presentation for your arguments based on purpose, scope of work, and/or personal experience
    • analyze and evaluate presentations of other presenters while practicing respect for the integrity of evidence and accurate representation of the ideas of others

  • High School Language Arts -- Competitive Speaking/Debate

    A - Competitive Speaking

    • demonstrate competence in the use of cross-examination techniques
    • demonstrate an understanding of a national debate topic
    • adjust reading rate to match purpose
    • demonstrate research skills involving proposition of policy using appropriate techniques, resources, and documentation
    • identify methods of reasoning and types of fallacies
    • identify and acceptably utilize parliamentary procedure rules
    • demonstrate critical thinking skills by developing an affirmative and negative case
    • analyze and evaluate presentations of other students
    • demonstrate appropriate speaking skills in a round of competitive speaking or dramatic interpretation
    • demonstrate understanding of competitive speaking vocabulary
    • demonstrate respect for the integrity of evidence and accurate representation of the ideas of others
    • define and differentiate among various debate propositions and among debate formats
    • demonstrate an understanding of forensic tournament procedures and conduct

    B - Extemporaneous (Impromptu) and Oratory

    • increase vocabulary using various strategies
    • identify and summarize the main and subordinate ideas in a written work
    • recognize different purposes and methods of writing, identify a writer's point-of-view and tone, and comprehend a writer's meaning inferentially as well as literally
    • utilize the school's media center, its resources, and the Internet to document current events
    • practice thesis support, appropriate documentation, and synthesis of information from various sources
    • distinguish own personal opinions and assumptions from those of other writers
    • utilize persuasive and extemporaneous speaking skills demonstrate topic control and limitation 

    C - Dramatic Events

    • read and use scripted materials to determine the text and subtext of the script
    • recognize and describe personal and universal meanings in interpretation
    • apply techniques of emotional expression to portray human personalities in characterization
    • apply skills for ensemble blend, group communication, focus, and balance in improvisation, rehearsal of scripted materials, and performance
    • apply and synthesize vocal techniques to create characterization in scripted and improvised activities
    • recognize the importance of energy, build, and control for precise nonverbal communication
    • read, edit, and practice dramatic, humorous, and oral interpretation of various works
    • read, discuss, and write to formulate reasoned judgments about written and oral communication in various media genres and literary forms
    • use movement to discover and explore thought, feeling, sensory awareness, and emotional responses
    • use improvisation as a tool for creating and developing characterization

  • High School Language Arts -- Journalism I

    A - Laws and Ethics

    • explain the code of journalism ethics (e.g. seek the truth and report it, do no harm, act independently, be accountable and transparent)
    • recognize copyright laws of plagiarism and fair use
    • summarize the decisions of the Supreme Court cases pertaining to the First Amendment's freedoms of speech and the press (e.g., Times Sullivan (1964), Tinker v. Des Moines (1968), Bethel v. Fraser (1968), Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier (1988), Morse v. Frederick (2007))

    B - Planning and Organization

    • demonstrate awareness of the intended audience and provide appropriate coverage
    • create and carry-out long-term and short-term plans and deadlines
    • summarize rules for local digital storage
    • recognize the basic elements in the publication layout
    • define roles and responsibilities for each member of the publication process

    C - Design

    • explain the publishing process
    • create a product that adheres to the basic design elements (e.g., typography, graphics, color, and use of space)
    • recognize current trends in production

    D - Interviewing and Writing

    • produce content that meets professional and community standards as defined by Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeir 1988
    • demonstrate effective interview skills

    E - Photography

    • evaluate the quality of an image (e.g., conveying the message, technical quality, and composition)
    • recognize the value of quality pictures and art, when applicable
    • demonstrate ability to crop pictures and art, when applicable
    • use appropriate photographic techniques
    • demonstrate an understanding of the importance of variety in photo choice

    F - Marketing

    • develop strategies to increase publication awareness through promotions
    • identify the most appropriate means of distribution for the publication
    • identify the sources of income and expenses
    • identify and meet financial goals necessary to produce a publication

  • High School Language Arts -- Library Science I - IV

    A - Classification and Location

    • identify and locate various formats of media in the media center (e.g., eBooks, audio books)
    • demonstrate an understanding of the Dewey Decimal classification system
    • identify and locate genres within fiction and nonfiction, biography, reference, periodicals, and special collections in the media center

    B - Operational Procedures

    • define terminology pertaining to the media center
    • demonstrate the use of selected media equipment (i.e., audio, cameras)
    • identify policies and procedures of the media center
    • circulate media center resources and equipment

    C - Information Access and Use

    • assist students, staff, and teachers in locating information
    • demonstrate a working knowledge of media center databases and digital tools
    • define terminology pertaining to digital citizenship
    • demonstrate a working knowledge of the credibility and relevance of information
    • demonstrate a working knowledge of best practices in good digital citizenship in the area of information access and use
    • demonstrate an understanding of basic research strategies

    D - Application

    • locate media materials using the online catalog
    • demonstrate the system for processing new media center materials
    • support literacy promotions at the direction of the media specialist promotions
    • demonstrate the system for shelving media center materials

  • High School Language Arts -- Literary Types and Composition

    A - Literary Types and Composition

    • determine an author's central purpose with a high level of precision, and analyze and evaluate the way(s) that purpose is developed through significant choices in the elements of composition (e.g., diction, syntax, imagery, figurative language, organization, tone, etc.)
    • listen critically and respond appropriately to written and oral communication in a variety of genres and media in order to increase precision as a reader and competence as a writer
    • initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade-appropriate topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively
    • edit and revise compositions multiple times in order to make them more correct, clear, economical, engaging, and compelling
    • write proposals and reports that effectively organize and convey technical information through economical selection of details and language and purposeful attention to conventions as a part of the inquiry and problem-solving process
    • demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking
    • demonstrate thorough knowledge of the elements of the major forms of fiction and nonfiction: short story, folktale, poetry, drama, essay, biography, autobiography, memoir, and editorial (e.g., plot, characterization, purpose, structure, evidence, etc.)
    • demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing
    • write for a variety of purposes and audiences, effectively adapting the elements of writing (e.g., diction, syntax, tone, organization, selection of support, format, etc.) as needed
    • use the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, punctuation, and spelling through analysis and imitation of mentor texts
    • analyze how various texts of literary merit reflect the social and historical context of the culture in which they were written
    • analyze and evaluate the clarity and effectiveness of informational and transactional texts through consideration of factors
    • study a selection of mentor texts and adopt features of those texts, as appropriate, to revise and improve compositions; demonstrate conscious use of those features as well as an understanding of their impact on the clarity, effectiveness, or beauty of compositions
    • determine the sincerity, credibility and authority of informational and transactional texts through careful consideration of the source of the text and the author's language, as well as possible instances of propaganda, disinformation, or bias
    • recognize significant incongruities (e.g., irony, ambiguity, omissions, ) in literary texts and analyze the purpose and impact of those incongruities 
    • write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence; effectively anticipate and respond to likely concerns and objections of readers who would be opposed to the writer's position 
    • write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content
    • write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events, using effective techniques, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences in support of a significant theme or purpose

  • High School Language Arts -- Media Literacy in a Global Society

    A - Reading Literary Text

    • analyze a case in which grasping point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement)
    • analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text
    • determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful (include Shakespeare as well as other authors)
    • determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text
    • read and comprehend literature and literary nonfiction, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 11-12 CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently, by the end of grade 12
    • analyze the impact of the author's choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed)
    • analyze how an author's choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise
    • demonstrate knowledge of 18th, 19th, and early 20th-century foundational works (of American literature, British literature, world literature, or multicultural literature), including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics
    • cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain

    B - Reading Informational Text

    • determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness, or beauty of the text
    • analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging
    • read and comprehend informational texts at the high end of the grades 11-12 text complexity band independently and proficiently, by the end of grade 12 
    • determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist 10) 
    • cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain
    • analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text
    • determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text
    • integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem
    • analyze foundational documents of historical and literary significance for their themes, purposes, and rhetorical features
    • delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning (e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents) and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses)

    C - Writing

    • gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation
    • produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience
    • develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience
    • write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events, using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences
    • use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information
    • write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences 
    • conduct short, as well as more sustained, research projects to answer questions (including self- generated questions) or solve problems; narrow or broaden the inquiries when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subjects, demonstrating understanding of the subjects under investigation 
    • draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research
    • write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence
    • write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content

    D - Speaking and Listening

    • initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (e.g., one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11-12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively
    • make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest
    • evaluate and/or reflect on a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence
    • adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate
    • present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task
    • integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source

    E - Language

    • demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing
    • acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression
    • determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 11-12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies
    • demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking 
    • demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings 
    • apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening

  • High School Language Arts -- Multicultural Literature and Composition

    A - Reading Literary Text

    • demonstrate knowledge of 18th, 19th, and early 20th-century works of multicultural literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics
    • read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 11-CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently, by the end of grade 12
    • analyze how an author's choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact
    • analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text
    • cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain
    • determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text
    • analyze the impact of the author's choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed)
    • determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful
    • analyze a case in which grasping point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement)

    B - Reading Informational Text

    • cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain
    • analyze foundational documents of historical and literary significance for their themes, purposes, and rhetorical features
    • integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem
    • determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text 
    • determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness, or beauty of the text 
    • determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text
    • read and comprehend informational texts at the high end of the grades 11-CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently, by the end of grade 12
    • analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging
    • delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy
    • analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text to create a distinct perspective

    C - Writing

    • develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience
    • produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience
    • write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences
    • gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation
    • write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence
    • write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content
    • write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events, using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences
    • draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research 
    • conduct short, as well as more sustained, research projects to answer questions (including self- generated questions) or solve problems; narrow or broaden the inquiries when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subjects, demonstrating understanding of the subjects under investigation
    • use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information

    D - Speaking and Listening

    • make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest
    • adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating a command of formal English when indicated or appropriate
    • initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (e.g., one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11-12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively
    • evaluate a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used
    • integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data
    • present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks

    E - Language

    • demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking
    • apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening
    • determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 11-12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies
    • demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings
    • acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression 
    • demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing

  • High School Language Arts -- Oral/Written Communication

    A - Oral/Written Communication

    • use and understand the patterns of organization to structure information for each specific type of speech
    • demonstrate effective preparation skills in the organization of speeches into appropriate sections and develop each section using the appropriate information and transitions between sections
    • demonstrate, through presentation skills, an understanding of the basic process for audience analysis, including demographics, cultural concerns, gender, and knowledge of the subject
    • demonstrate an understanding of ethical speaking and listening during presentations
    • evaluate the messages and effects of mass communication
    • comprehend, develop, and use concepts and generalizations to affect an audience
    • use, identify, and create speeches for different types of speaking purposes, including informing, persuading, entertaining, and motivating
    • use voice effectively (e.g., volume, rate, clarity, and inflection)
    • perform social rituals (e.g., introductions, greetings, and conversations)
    • analyze an issue to determine the topic, subtopic, amount, and timeliness of information for a given speech
    • use nonverbal signs appropriately (e.g., gestures, eye contact, facial expression, and posture)
    • demonstrate effective listening skills as they relate to critical understanding of speech topics
    • read, discuss, and analyze speeches and other types of literature that lend themselves to oral interpretation

  • High School Language Arts -- Reading/Writing I

    A - Literary Text

    • analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature
    • cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the literary text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text
    • analyze how an author's choices concerning how to structure a literary text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise
    • determine a theme or central idea of a literary text and closely analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text
    • read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the ninth through tenth grades text complexity band independently and proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range, by the end of ninth grade
    • determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a literary text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone)
    • analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a literary text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme

    B - Informational Text

    • determine a central idea of an informational text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text
    • determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in an informational text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper)
    • read and comprehend informational texts in the grades ninth through tenth text complexity band proficiently, by the end of ninth grade
    • analyze in detail how an author's ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter)
    • cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what an informational text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text 
    • delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning 
    • analyze how the author of an informational text unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them
    • analyze documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washington's Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, Roosevelt's Four Freedoms Speech, King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail," Nelson Mandela's Nobel Peace Prize Speech, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights), including how they address related themes and concepts
    • analyze in detail how an author's ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter)

    C - Writing

    • produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience
    • conduct short, as well as more sustained, research projects to answer questions (including self- generated questions) or solve problems; narrow or broaden inquiries when appropriate; synthesize subjects, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation
    • gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citations
    • develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience
    • draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research

  • High School Language Arts -- Writer's Workshop

    A - Writer's Workshop

    • identify and analyze techniques specific to a variety of genres (e.g., poem and short story, creative nonfiction, drama) and effectively utilize the appropriate genre technique(s) in writing an original text
    • analyze the function and effect of poetic and literary devices in mentor text in order to emulate in original poetry, or to use poetic language, voice, style, and purpose in a variety of texts
    • read text as a writer analyzing the author's craft (e.g., structure, ideas, details, syntax, diction, tone) and use of language
    • create an original piece in multiple genres in response to a single stimuli (e.g., text, visual, prompt, situation) purposefully and effectively using poetic devices and techniques (e.g., form, meter, rhyme) and the elements of fiction (e.g., characters, plot, setting, mood)
    • adapt writing style to various audiences
    • choose appropriate diction, syntax, and conventions for the intended audience and purpose, and use language choices effectively and purposefully in a variety of genres
    • use a variety of techniques in writing to affect the reader
    • develop imaginative expression in writing (i.e., fresh ideas, diction, and voice)
    • establish and maintain effective techniques (e.g., well-chosen details, well-structured event sequence, poetic and literary devices, point-of-view, elements of fiction) to develop an original piece of fiction
    • create and develop an original text, based on self-selected topics, themes, ideas, research, or areas of interest, in a variety of genres using the elements of fiction and rhetorical techniques
    • use techniques appropriate to different stages of the writing process to achieve fluency, control, and proficiency
    • identify and analyze components (e.g., structure, fluency, style, voice, diction, mechanics, grammar, imaginative expressions, details, literary and poetic devices) in exemplar texts
    • evaluate and analyze a variety of genres representing multiple literary periods, cultures, and perspectives to emulate and inform the writing of original fiction
    • create and develop original writing by effectively using individual revision strategies and writing workshops to address weakness and gaps in the development of what is most significant in a text (e.g., response to the needs of the audience, effective use of the elements of language, purposeful and effective use of literary and poetic devices)
    • use a variety of platforms (e.g., blog, performance, traditional publication, social media) to publish original writing for specific audiences and purposes using an appropriate genre for the platform
    • develop advanced literary and poetic devices (e.g., motifs, symbols, archetypes, extended metaphors, conflicts) in the development of an original text 
    • analyze the development of theme in exemplar texts in order to create major and minor themes in original writing (e.g., fiction, poetry, drama, creative nonfiction)