 Gwinnett County School District
 High School AKS Standards
AKS Standards
 Overview of the Curriculum  Kindergarten through Grade 8
 Specialized Programs and Services (K12)
 AKS Standards by Grade Level (K8)
 High School AKS Standards
 The AKS by Subject  Grades K12
High School Mathematics

High School Mathematics  Algebra I
A  Algebra
 represent constraints by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret data points as possible (i.e., a solution) or not possible (i.e., a nonsolution) under the established constraints
 graph the solution set to a system of linear inequalities in two variables as the intersection of the corresponding halfplanes
 solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable, including equations with coefficients represented by letters (i.e., solve multistep linear equations with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions; extend this reasoning to solve compound linear inequalities and literal equations); express solution sets to inequalities using both interval notation (e.g., (2, 10]) and set notation (e.g., {x  2 < x =10})
 create quadratic equations in one variable and use them to solve problems
 justify the steps of a simple onesolution equation using algebraic properties and the properties of real numbers; justify each step, or if given two or more steps of an equation, explain the progression from one step to the next using properties
 show and explain why the elimination method works to solve a system of twovariable equations
 create exponential equations in two variables to represent relationships between quantities expressed in a table of values or verbal representation, graph these exponential equations on coordinate axes with appropriate labels and scales
 factor any quadratic expression to reveal the zeros of the function it defines
 graph the solutions to a linear inequality in two variables as a half plane, excluding the boundary in the case of a strict inequality
 create quadratic equations in two variables to represent relationships between quantities expressed in a table of values or verbal representation; graph these quadratic equations on coordinate axes with appropriate labels and scales
 solve quadratic equations by inspection, taking square roots, factoring, completing the square, and the quadratic formula, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation (limit to real number solutions)
 represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and interpret data points as possible (i.e., a solution) or not possible (i.e., a nonsolution) under the established constraints
 create linear equations in two variables to represent relationships between quantities expressed in a table of values or verbal representation, including writing equations when given a slope and a yintercept or slope and a point; graph these linear equations on coordinate axes with appropriate labels and scales
 solve systems of linear equations exactly (i.e., algebraically) and approximately (i.e., with graphs), focusing on pairs of linear equations in two variables; solve simple cases by inspection (i.e., 3x + 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 6 have no solution because 3x + 2y cannot simultaneously be 5 and 6)
 complete the square in a quadratic expression to reveal the maximum or minimum value of the function it defines
 add, subtract, and multiply polynomials
 interpret the meaning of given formulas or expressions in context of individual terms or factors when given in situations which utilize the formulas or expressions with multiple terms and/or factors
 create exponential equations in one variable and use them to solve simple equations
 rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations (i.e., rearrange Ohm’s law V=IR to highlight resistance R)
 explain why the xcoordinates of the points where the graphs of the equations y=f(x) and y=g(x) intersect are the solutions of the equation f(x)=g(x); find the solutions approximately (i.e., using technology to graph the functions, make tables of values, or find successive approximations)
 create linear equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems
 demonstrate that the graph of an equation in two variables is the set of all its solutions plotted in the coordinate plane
 use the structure of an expression to rewrite it in different equivalent forms [i.e., see x4  y4 as ((x²) (y²))², thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as (x²y²)(x²+y²)]
 choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression (i.e., reveal the zeros, minimum, or maximum)
 interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients in context
 use the method of completing the square to transform any quadratic equation in x into an equation of the form (x  p)² = q that has the same solutions. Derive the quadratic formula from ax² + bx + c = 0
B  Statistics and Probability
 explain the difference between correlation and causation
 compute (using technology) and interpret the correlation coefficient of a linear fit (i.e., by looking at a scatter plot, students should be able to tell if the correlation coefficient is positive or negative and give a reasonable estimate of the “r” value after calculating the line of best fit using technology, describe how strong the goodness of fit of the regression is using ”r”)
 use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center (i.e., median, mean) and spread (i.e., interquartile range, mean absolute deviation) of two or more different data sets
 represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot and describe how the variables are related
 summarize categorical data for two categories in twoway frequency tables; interpret relative frequencies in the context of the data (i.e., including joint, marginal, and conditional relative frequencies); recognize possible associations and trends in the data
 represent data with plots on the real number line (i.e., dot plots, histograms, and box plots)
 fit a function to bivariate data; use functions fitted to data to solve problems in the context of the data; use given functions or choose a function suggested by the context; emphasize linear, quadratic, and exponential models
 determine and interpret the slope (i.e., rate of change) and the intercept (i.e., constant term) of a linear model in the context of the data
 interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (i.e., outliers)
C  Functions
 understand that a function from one set (the input, called the domain) to another set (the output, called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range [i.e., if f is a function, x is the input (an element of the domain), and f(x) is the corresponding output (an element of the range); the graph of the function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output]
 interpret key features of linear, quadratic, and exponential functions represented in graphs, tables, equations, and verbal descriptions (i.e., intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; asymptotes; end behavior); sketch graphs showing these key features when given a verbal description of the relationship
 prove that linear functions grow by equal differences over equal intervals, and that exponential functions grow by equal factors over equal intervals; this can be shown by algebraic proof, with a table showing differences, or by calculating average rates of change over equal intervals
 use the process of factoring and completing the square in a quadratic function to show zeros, extreme values, and symmetry of the graph, and interpret these in terms of a context (i.e., compare and contrast quadratic functions in standard, vertex, and intercept forms)
 graph linear, quadratic, and exponential functions algebraically and show key features of the graph by hand and by using technology
 interpret key features of linear functions represented in graphs, tables, equations, and verbal descriptions (i.e., intercepts, positive, negative; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing); sketch graphs showing these key features when given a verbal description of the relationship
 construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, table, a description of a relationship, or two inputoutput pairs
 write arithmetic sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula; use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms; connect arithmetic sequences to linear functions
 write a function that describes an exponential relationship between two quantities by determining an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context
 relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes [e.g., if the function h(n) gives the number of personhours it takes to assemble n engines in a factory, then the positive integers would be an appropriate domain for the function]; represent the domain and range using both interval notation (e.g., (2, 10]) and set notation (e.g., {x2 < x =10})
 interpret key features of quadratic functions represented in graphs, tables, equations, and verbal descriptions (i.e., intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior); sketch graphs showing these key features when given a verbal description of the relationship
 interpret key features of exponential functions represented in graphs, tables, equations, and verbal descriptions (i.e., intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; asymptote; and end behavior); sketch graphs showing these key features when given a verbal description of the relationship
 write a function that describes a linear relationship between two quantities by determining an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context
 write geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula; use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms; connect geometric sequences to exponential functions
 show using graphs and tables that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically, or more generally as a polynomial function
 compare properties of two functions each represented algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, and/or by a verbal description
 graph linear functions expressed algebraically in slopeintercept and standard form by hand and by using technology; show and interpret key features including slope and intercepts (as determined by the function or by context)
 use second differences to write a quadratic function that describes a relationship between two quantities
 graph quadratic functions expressed algebraically by hand and by using technology; show and interpret key features including intercepts, maxima, and minima (as determined by the function or by context)
 recognize situations in which a quantity grows or decays by a constant percent rate per unit interval relative to another (i.e., exponential)
 interpret the parameters in a linear (i.e., f(x) = mx + b) or exponential function (i.e., f(x)=a·dx) in terms of a context (i.e., in the provided functions, “m” and “b” are the parameters of the linear function, and “a” and “d” are the parameters of the exponential function); in context, students should describe what these parameters mean in terms of change and starting value
 calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval; estimate the rate of change from a graph
 evaluate functions for inputs in their domains using function notation and interpret statements that use function notation in terms of a context
 identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs; experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology; include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions
 graph exponential functions expressed algebraically by hand and by using technology; show and interpret key features including intercepts and end behavior
 recognize situations in which one quantity changes at a constant rate per unit interval relative to another (i.e., linear)
 recognize that geometric sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers
 recognize that arithmetic sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers
D  Number and Quantity
 define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling; given a situation, context, or problem, students will determine, identify, and use appropriate quantities for representing the situation
 choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities (e.g., money situations are generally reported to the nearest hundredth; also, an answers’ precision is limited to the precision of the data given)
 rewrite expressions involving radicals (i.e., simplify and/or use the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division with radicals within algebraic expressions limited to square roots)
 explain why the sum or product of rational numbers is rational, why the sum of a rational number and an irrational number is irrational, and why the product of a nonzero rational number and an irrational number is irrational
 use units of measure (linear, area, capacity, rates, and time) as a way to understand problems; identify, use, and record appropriate units of measure within context, within data displays, and on graphs; convert units and rates using dimensional analysis (English to English and Metric to Metric without conversion factor provided and between English and Metric with conversion factor); use units within multistep problems and formulas; interpret units of input and resulting units of output

High School Mathematics  Accelerated Algebra I
A  Algebra
 demonstrate that the graph of an equation in two variables is the set of all its solutions plotted in the coordinate plane
 add, subtract, and multiply polynomials
 create exponential equations in two variables to represent relationships between quantities expressed in a table of values or verbal representation, graph these exponential equations on coordinate axes with appropriate labels and scales
 represent constraints by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret data points as possible (i.e., a solution) or not possible (i.e., a nonsolution) under the established constraints
 factor any quadratic expression to reveal the zeros of the function it defines
 create exponential equations in one variable and use them to solve simple equations
 graph the solution set to a system of linear inequalities in two variables as the intersection of the corresponding halfplanes
 create linear equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems
 solve quadratic equations by inspection, taking square roots, factoring, completing the square, and the quadratic formula, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation (limit to real number solutions)
 interpret the meaning of given formulas or expressions in context of individual terms or factors when given in situations which utilize the formulas or expressions with multiple terms and/or factors
 use the method of completing the square to transform any quadratic equation in x into an equation of the form (x  p)² = q that has the same solutions; derive the quadratic formula from ax² + bx + c = 0
 create linear equations in two variables to represent relationships between quantities expressed in a table of values or verbal representation, including writing equations when given a slope and a yintercept or slope and a point; graph these linear equations on coordinate axes with appropriate labels and scales
 explain why the xcoordinates of the points where the graphs of the equations y=f(x) and y=g(x) intersect are the solutions of the equation f(x)=g(x); find the solutions approximately (e.g., using technology to graph the functions, make tables of values, or find successive approximations)
 create quadratic equations in two variables to represent relationships between quantities expressed in a table of values or verbal representation; graph these quadratic equations on coordinate axes with appropriate labels and scales
 represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and interpret data points as possible (i.e., a solution) or not possible (i.e., a nonsolution) under the established constraints
 solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable, including equations with coefficients represented by letters (i.e., solve multistep linear equations with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions; extend this reasoning to solve compound linear inequalities and literal equations); express solution sets to inequalities using both interval notation (e.g., (2, 10]) and set notation (e.g., {x  2 < x = 10})
 justify the steps of a simple onesolution equation using algebraic properties and the properties of real numbers; justify each step, or if given two or more steps of an equation, explain the progression from one step to the next using properties
 complete the square in a quadratic expression to reveal the maximum or minimum value of the function it defines
 solve systems of linear equations exactly (i.e., algebraically) and approximately (i.e., with graphs), focusing on pairs of linear equations in two variables; solve simple cases by inspection (e.g., 3x + 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 6 have no solution because 3x + 2y cannot simultaneously be 5 and 6)
 graph the solutions to a linear inequality in two variables as a half plane, excluding the boundary in the case of a strict inequality
 use the structure of an expression to rewrite it in different equivalent forms [i.e., see x4  y4 as ((x²) (y²))², thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as (x²y²)(x²+y²)]
 show and explain why the elimination method works to solve a system of twovariable equations
 create quadratic equations in one variable and use them to solve problems
 interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients in context
 rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations (e.g., rearrange Ohm's law V=IR to highlight resistance R)
 choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression (e.g., reveal the zeros, minimum, or maximum)
B  Statistics and Probability
 use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center (i.e., median, mean) and spread (i.e., interquartile range, mean absolute deviation) of two or more different data sets
 explain the difference between correlation and causation
 fit a function to bivariate data; use functions fitted to data to solve problems in the context of the data; use given functions or choose a function suggested by the context; emphasize linear, quadratic, and exponential models
 summarize categorical data for two categories in twoway frequency tables; interpret relative frequencies in the context of the data (i.e., including joint, marginal, and conditional relative frequencies); recognize possible associations and trends in the data
 represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot and describe how the variables are related
 determine and interpret the slope (i.e., rate of change) and the intercept (i.e., constant term) of a linear model in the context of the data
 interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (i.e., outliers)
 compute (using technology) and interpret the correlation coefficient of a linear fit (e.g., by looking at a scatter plot, students should be able to tell if the correlation coefficient is positive or negative and give a reasonable estimate of the "r" value; after calculating the line of best fit using technology, describe how strong the goodness of fit of the regression is using "r")
 represent data with plots on the real number line (e.g., dot plots, histograms, and box plots)
C  Geometry
 use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to show that two triangles are congruent if and only if corresponding pairs of sides and corresponding pairs of angles are congruent
 know and apply the precise definitions of angle, circle, perpendicular line, parallel line, and line segment, based on the undefined notions of point, line, distance along a line, and distance around a circular arc
 understand that by similarity, side ratios in right triangles are properties of the angles in the triangle, leading to definitions of trigonometric ratios for acute angles
 given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software; specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another
 given two figures, use the definition of similarity in terms of similarity transformations to decide if they are similar; explain using similarity transformations the meaning of similarity for triangles as the equality of all corresponding pairs of angles and the proportionality of all corresponding pairs of sides
 develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments
 explain how the criteria for triangle congruence (i.e., ASA, SAS, SSS, HL, AAS) follow from the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions
 describe the rotations and reflections that carry a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon onto itself
 use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide if they are congruent
 prove theorems about lines and angles (i.e., vertical angles are congruent; when a transversal crosses parallel lines, alternate interior angles are congruent and corresponding angles are congruent; points on a perpendicular bisector of a line segment are exactly those equidistant from the segment's endpoints)
 use congruence and similarity criteria for triangles to solve problems and to prove relationships in geometric figures
 make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods (e.g., compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, dynamic geometric software); copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line
 use the properties of similarity transformations to establish the AA criterion for two triangles to be similar
 construct an equilateral triangle, a square, and a regular hexagon, each inscribed in a circle
 explain and use the relationship between the sine and cosine of complementary angles
 prove theorems about triangles (i.e., measures of the interior angles of a triangle sum to 180 degrees; base angles of isosceles triangles are congruent; the segment joining midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and half the length; the medians of a triangle meet at a point)
 prove theorems about triangles (i.e., a line parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two proportionally, and conversely; the Pythagorean Theorem using triangle similarity)
 verify experimentally the properties of dilations given by a center and a scale factor (i.e., a dilation of a line not passing through the center of the dilation results in a parallel line and leaves a line passing through the center unchanged; the dilation of a line segment is longer or shorter according to the ratio given by the scale factor)
 describe transformations as function that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs; compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch)
 prove theorems about parallelograms (i.e., opposite sides are congruent, opposite angles are congruent, the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other, and conversely, rectangles are parallelograms with congruent diagonals)
 use trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean Theorem to solve right triangles in applied problems
D  Functions
 interpret key features of linear, quadratic, and exponential functions represented in graphs, tables, equations, and verbal descriptions (i.e., intercepts, positive, negative; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; asymptotes; end behavior); sketch graphs showing these key features when given a verbal description of the relationship
 recognize situations in which a quantity grows or decays by a constant percent rate per unit interval relative to another (i.e., exponential)
 write arithmetic sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula; use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms; connect arithmetic sequences to linear functions
 evaluate functions for inputs in their domains using function notation and interpret statements that use function notation in terms of a context
 interpret the parameters in a linear or exponential function in terms of a context; in context, students should describe what these parameters mean in terms of change and starting value
 calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval; estimate the rate of change from a graph
 recognize that geometric sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers
 write geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula; use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms; connect geometric sequences to exponential functions
 graph exponential functions expressed algebraically by hand and by using technology; show and interpret key features including intercepts and end behavior
 write a function that describes an exponential relationship between two quantities by determining an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context
 relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes [e.g., if the function h(n) gives the number of personhours it takes to assemble n engines in a factory, then the positive integers would be an appropriate domain for the function]; represent the domain and range using both interval notation (e.g., (2, 10]) and set notation (e.g., {x2 < x = 10})
 graph linear functions expressed algebraically in slopeintercept and standard form by hand and by using technology; show and interpret key features including slope and intercepts (as determined by the function or by context)
 interpret key features of exponential functions represented in graphs, tables, equations, and verbal descriptions (i.e., intercepts, positive, negative; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing; relative maximums and minimums; asymptotes; end behavior); sketch graphs showing these key features when given a verbal description of the relationship
 recognize that arithmetic sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers
 use second differences to write a quadratic function that describes a relationship between two quantities
 recognize situations in which one quantity changes at a constant rate per unit interval relative to another (i.e., linear)
 graph quadratic functions expressed algebraically by hand and by using technology; show and interpret key features including intercepts, maxima, and minima (as determined by the function or by context)
 show using graphs and tables that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically, or more generally as a polynomial function
 use the process of factoring and completing the square in a quadratic function to show zeros, extreme values, and symmetry of the graph, and interpret these in terms of a context (e.g., compare and contrast quadratic functions in standard, vertex, and intercept forms)
 <font face="Calibri, sansserif"><span style="fontsize: 16px;">write a function that describes a linear relationship between two quantities by determining an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context</span></font><br>
 identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs; experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology; include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions
 construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, table, a description of a relationship, or two inputoutput pairs
 understand that a function from one set (the input, called the domain) to another set (the output, called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range [i.e., if f is a function, x is the input (an element of the domain), and f(x) is the corresponding output (an element of the range); the graph of the function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output]
 graph linear, quadratic, and exponential functions algebraically and show key features of the graph by hand and by using technology
 interpret key features of linear functions represented in graphs, tables, equations, and verbal descriptions (i.e., intercepts, positive, negative; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing); sketch graphs showing these key features when given a verbal description of the relationship
 prove that linear functions grow by equal differences over equal intervals, and that exponential functions grow by equal factors over equal intervals; this can be shown by algebraic proof, with a table showing differences, or by calculating average rates of change over equal intervals
 interpret key features of quadratic functions represented in graphs, tables, equations, and verbal descriptions (i.e., intercepts, positive, negative; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior); sketch graphs showing these key features when given a verbal description of the relationship
 compare properties of two functions each represented algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, and/or by a verbal description
 use units of measure (linear, area, capacity, rates, and time) as a way to understand problems; identify, use, and record appropriate units of measure within context, within data displays, and on graphs; convert units and rates using dimensional analysis (English to English and Metric to Metric without conversion factor provided and between English and Metric with conversion factor); use units within multistep problems and formulas; interpret units of input and resulting units of output
 choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities (e.g., money situations are generally reported to the nearest hundredth; also, an answers' precision is limited to the precision of the data given)
 rewrite expressions involving radicals (i.e., simplify and /or use the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division with radicals within algebraic expressions limited to square roots)
 explain why the sum or the product of rational numbers is rational, why the sum of a rational number and an irrational number is irrational, and why the product of a nonzero rational number and an irrational number is irrational
 define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling; given a situation, context, or problem, students will determine, identify, and use appropriate quantities for representing the situation

High School Mathematics  Geometry
A  Geometry
 use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to show that two triangles are congruent if and only if corresponding pairs of sides and corresponding pairs of angles are congruent
 use geometric shapes, their measures, and their properties to describe objects (e.g., modeling a tree trunk or a human torso as a cylinder)
 use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically (i.e., prove or disprove that a figure defined by four given points in the coordinate plane is a rectangle; prove or disprove that a point lies on a circle centered at the origin and containing a given point), including quadrilaterals, circles, right triangles, and parabolas
 use coordinates to compute perimeters of polygons and areas of triangles and rectangles (e.g., using the distance formula)
 understand that by similarity, side ratios in right triangles are properties of the angles in the triangle, leading to definitions of trigonometric ratios for acute angles
 prove theorems about triangles (i.e., measures of interior angles of a triangle sum to 180 degrees; base angles of isosceles triangles are congruent; the segment joining midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and half the length; the medians of a triangle meet at a point)
 given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software; specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another
 prove the slope criteria for parallel and perpendicular lines and use them to solve geometric problems (e.g., find the equation of a line parallel or perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point)
 use volume formulas for cylinders, pyramids, cones, and spheres to solve problems
 explain and use the relationship between the sine and cosine of complementary angles
 explain how the criteria for triangle congruence (i.e., ASA, SAS, SSS, HL, AAS) follow from the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions
 know and apply the precise definitions of angle, circle, perpendicular line, parallel line, and line segment, based on the undefined notions of point, line, distance along a line, and distance around a circular arc
 make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods (e.g., compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, dynamic geometric software); copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line
 describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs; compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch)
 construct the inscribed and circumscribed circle of a triangle
 use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angles of triangles and about the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal
 give informal arguments for geometric formulas (i.e., informal arguments for the formulas of the circumference of a circle and area of a circle using dissection arguments and informal limit arguments; informal arguments for the formula of the volume of a cylinder, pyramid, and cone using Cavalieri's principle)
 apply concepts of density based on area and volume in modeling situations (e.g., persons per square mile, BTUs per cubic foot)
 derive using similarity the fact that the length of the arc intercepted by an angle is proportional to the radius, and define the radian measure of the angle as the constant of proportionality; derive the formula for the area of a sector
 prove theorems about lines and angles (i.e., vertical angles are congruent; when a transversal crosses parallel lines, alternate interior angles are congruent and corresponding angles are congruent; points on a perpendicular bisector of a line segment are exactly those equidistant from the segment's endpoints)
 apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles in real world and mathematical problems in three dimensions
 prove properties of angles for a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle
 give an informal argument using Cavalieri's principle for the formulas of the volume of a sphere and other solid figures
 construct a tangent line from a point outside a given circle to the circle
 use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide if they are congruent
 find the point on a directed line segment between two given points that partitions the segment in a given ratio
 develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments
 prove theorems about triangles (i.e., a line parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two proportionally, and conversely; the Pythagorean Theorem using triangle similarity)
 informally prove the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse geometrically (i.e., using area model)
 describe the rotations and reflections that carry a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon onto itself
 explain and apply the distance formula as an application of the Pythagorean Theorem
 given two figures, use the definition of similarity in terms of similarity transformations to decide if they are similar; explain using similarity transformations the meaning of similarity for triangles as the equality of all corresponding pairs of angles and the proportionality of all corresponding pairs of sides
 verify experimentally the properties of dilations given by a center and a scale factor (i.e., a dilation of a line not passing through the center of the dilation results in a parallel line and leaves a line passing through the center unchanged; the dilation of a line segment is longer or shorter according to the ratio given by the scale factor)
 prove theorems about parallelograms (i.e., opposite sides are congruent, opposite angles are congruent, the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other, and conversely, rectangles are parallelograms with congruent diagonals)
 derive the equation of a circle of given center and radius using the Pythagorean Theorem; complete the square to find the center and radius of a circle given by an equation
 construct an equilateral triangle, a square, and a regular hexagon, each inscribed in a circle
 prove that all circles are similar (i.e., using transformations; ratio of circumference to the diameter is a constant)
 identify the shapes of twodimensional crosssections of threedimensional objects, and identify threedimensional objects generated by rotations of twodimensional objects
 use the properties of similarity transformations to establish the AA criterion for two triangles to be similar
 use similarity criteria for triangles to solve problems and to prove relationships in geometric figures
 use congruence criteria for triangles to solve problems and to prove relationships in geometric figures
 use trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean Theorem to solve right triangles in applied problems
 identify and describe relationships among inscribed angles, radii, chords, tangents, and secants (i.e., the relationship between central, inscribed, and circumscribed angles; inscribed angles on a diameter are right angles; the radius of a circle is perpendicular to the tangent where the radius intersects the circle)
 describe the effects of dilations, translations, rotations, and reflections on twodimensional figures using coordinates
 apply geometric methods to solve design problems (e.g., designing an object or structure to satisfy physical constraints or minimize cost; working with typographic grid systems based on ratios)
B  Statistics and Probability
 find the conditional probability of A given B as the fraction of B's outcomes that also belong to A, and interpret the answer in context
 construct and interpret twoway frequency tables of data when two categories are associated with each object being classified; use the twoway table as a sample space to decide if events are independent and to approximate conditional probabilities (e.g., collect data from a random sample of students in your school on their favorite subject among math, science, and English; estimate the probability that a randomly selected student from your school will favor science given that the student is in tenth grade; do the same for other subjects and compare the results)
 understand the conditional probability of A given B as P(A and B)/P(B); interpret independence of A and B in terms of conditional probability (i.e., the conditional probability of A given B is the same as the probability of A and the conditional probability of B given A is the same as the probability of B)
 apply the Addition Rule, P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B)  P(A and B), and interpret the answer in context
 recognize and explain the concepts of conditional probability and independence in everyday language and everyday situations (e.g., compare the chance of having lung cancer if you are a smoker with the chance of being a smoker if you have lung cancer)
 understand that if two events A and B are independent, the probability of A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, and that if the probability of two events A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, the two events are independent
 describe categories of events as subsets of a sample space using unions, intersections, or complements of other events (i.e., "or," "and," "not")

High School Mathematics  Accelerated Geometry
A  Algebra
 create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems (i.e., create equations in one variable that describes simple rational functions, exponential functions, )
 know and apply that the Binomial Theorem gives the expansion of (x + y)^n in powers of x and y for a positive integer n, where x and y are any numbers, with coefficients determined using Pascal’s Triangle
 interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context
 create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales (i.e., create and graph equations in two variables to describe radical functions, rational functions, etc.)
 interpret parts of an expression such as terms, factors, and coefficients, in context
 solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g.,x² = 49), taking square roots, factoring, completing the square, and using the quadratic formula, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation; recognize when the quadratic formula gives complex solutions and write them as a ± bi for real numbers a and b
 solve simple rational and radical equations in one variable, and give examples showing how extraneous solutions may arise
 solve quadratic equations in one variable
 know and apply the Remainder Theorem: For a polynomial p(x) and a number a, the remainder on division by x  a is p(a), so p(a) = 0 if and only if (x  a) is a factor of p(x)
 derive the formula for the sum of a finite geometric series (when the common ratio is not 1), and use the formula to solve problems (e.g., calculate mortgage payments)
 prove polynomial identities and use them to describe numerical relationships (e.g., the polynomial identity (x² + y²)² = (x²  y²)² + (2xy)² can be used to generate Pythagorean triples)
 given situations which utilize formulas or expressions with multiple terms and/or factors, interpret the meaning (in context) of individual terms or factors
 rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations
 represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or nonviable options in a modeling context (e.g., represent inequalities describing nutritional and cost constraints on combinations of different foods)
 explain why the xcoordinates of the points where the graphs of the equations y = f(x) and y = g (x) intersect are the solutions of the equation f(x) = g(x); find the solutions approximately (e.g., using a graph, find the solution to a system of equations where f(x) and/or g(x) are rational functions)
 understand that rational expressions form a system analogous to the rational numbers, closed under addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division by a nonzero rational expression; add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions
 use the structure of an expression to rewrite it in different equivalent forms (e.g., recognize x4  y4as (x²)² (y²)², thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as (x² y²)(x²+ y²))
 choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression
 identify zeros of polynomials when suitable factorizations are available, and use the zeros to construct a rough graph of the function defined by the polynomial
 use the properties of exponents to transform expressions for exponential functions
 rewrite simple rational expressions in different forms; write a(x)/b(x) in the form q(x) + r(x)/b(x), where a(x), b(x), q(x), and r(x) are polynomials with the degree of r(x) less than the degree of b (x), using inspection, long division, or, for the more complicated examples, a computer algebra system
 understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials
B  Function
 use the properties of exponents to interpret expressions for exponential functions
 graph rational functions, identifying zeros and asymptotes when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior
 relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes (e.g., if the function h(n) gives the number of personhours it takes to assemble n engines in a factory, then the positive integers would be an appropriate domain for the function)
 graph exponential and logarithmic functions, showing intercepts and end behavior
 graph polynomial functions, identifying zeros when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior
 using tables, graphs, equations, and verbal descriptions, interpret the key characteristics of a function which models the relationship between two quantities; sketch a graph showing key features, including intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior
 graph square root, cube root, and piecewisedefined functions, including step functions and absolute value functions
 read values of an inverse function from a graph or a table, given that the function has an inverse
 write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function
 compare properties of two functions each represented algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, and/or by a verbal description
 graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases
 write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities (e.g., quadratic, polynomial, rational, radical, exponential, logarithmic)
 compose functions
 solve an equation of the form f(x) = c for a simple function f that has an inverse and write an expression for the inverse (e.g., f(x) = 2(x^3) or f(x) = (x+1)/(x1) for x?1)
 identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, kf(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs; experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology; include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them
 verify by composition that one function is the inverse of another
 find inverse functions
 express as a logarithm the solution to ab^(ct) = d where a, c, and d are numbers and the base b is 2, 10, or e; evaluate the logarithm using technology
 combine standard function types using arithmetic operations
 understand the inverse relationship between exponents and logarithms and use this relationship to solve problems involving logarithms and exponents
 calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval; estimate the rate of change from a graph
C  Geometry
 apply geometric methods to solve design problems (e.g., designing an object or structure to satisfy physical constraints or minimize cost; working with typographic grid systems based on ratios)
 use volume formulas for cylinders, pyramids, cones, and spheres to solve problems
 give an informal argument using Cavalieri's principle for the formulas of the volume of a sphere and other solid figures
 derive using similarity the fact that the length of the arc intercepted by an angle is proportional to the radius, and define the radian measure of the angle as the constant of proportionality; derive the formula for the area of a sector
 identify and describe relationships among inscribed angles, radii, chords, tangents, and secants (i.e., the relationship between central, inscribed, and circumscribed angles; inscribed angles on a diameter are right angles; the radius of a circle is perpendicular to the tangent where the radius intersects the circle)
 use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically (i.e., prove or disprove that a figure defined by four given points in the coordinate plane is a rectangle; prove or disprove that a point lies on a circle centered at the origin and containing a given point), including quadrilaterals, circles, right triangles, and parabolas
 use geometric shapes, their measures, and their properties to describe objects (e.g., modeling a tree trunk or a human torso as a cylinder)
 identify the shapes of twodimensional crosssections of threedimensional objects, and identify threedimensional objects generated by rotations of twodimensional objects
 prove that all circles are similar (i.e., using transformations; ratio of circumference to the diameter is a constant)
 construct a tangent line from a point outside a given circle to the circle
 give informal arguments for geometric formulas (i.e., informal arguments for the formulas of the circumference of a circle and area of a circle using dissection arguments and informal limit arguments; informal arguments for the formula of the volume of a cylinder, pyramid, and cone using Cavalieri's principle)
 prove the slope criteria for parallel and perpendicular lines and use them to solve geometric problems (e.g., find the equation of a line parallel or perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point)
 derive the equation of a circle of given center and radius using the Pythagorean Theorem; complete the square to find the center and radius of a circle given by an equation
 apply concepts of density based on area and volume in modeling situations (e.g., persons per square mile, BTUs per cubic foot)
 construct the inscribed and circumscribed circle of a triangle, and prove properties of angles for a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle
 find the point on a directed line segment between two given points that partitions the segment in a given ratio
 use coordinates to compute perimeters of polygons and areas of triangles and rectangles (e.g., using the distance formula)
D  Numbers
 find the conjugate of a complex number; use conjugates to find quotients of complex numbers
 know the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra; show that it is true for quadratic polynomials
 extend polynomial identities to the complex numbers (e.g., rewrite x² + 4 as (x + 2i)(x  2i))
 solve quadratic equations with real coefficients that have complex solutions explain how the definition of the meaning of rational exponents follows from extending the properties of integer exponents to those values, allowing for a notation for radicals in terms of rational exponents
 rewrite expressions involving radicals and rational exponents using the properties of exponents
 use the relation i² = 1 and the commutative, associative, and distributive properties to add, subtract, and multiply complex numbers
 know there is a complex number i such that i² = 1, and every complex number has the form a + bi with a and b real
E  Statistics and Probability
 find the conditional probability of A given B as the fraction of B's outcomes that also belong to A, and interpret the answer in context
 construct and interpret twoway frequency tables of data when two categories are associated with each object being classified; use the twoway table as a sample space to decide if events are independent and to approximate conditional probabilities (e.g., collect data from a random sample of students in your school on their favorite subject among math, science, and English; estimate the probability that a randomly selected student from your school will favor science given that the student is in tenth grade; do the same for other subjects and compare the results)
 describe categories of events as subsets of a sample space using unions, intersections, or complements of other events (i.e., "or," "and," "not")
 recognize and explain the concepts of conditional probability and independence in everyday language and everyday situations (e.g., compare the chance of having lung cancer if you are a smoker with the chance of being a smoker if you have lung cancer)
 understand that if two events A and B are independent, the probability of A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, and that if the probability of two events A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, the two events are independent
 apply the Addition Rule, P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B)  P(A and B), and interpret the answer in context
 understand the conditional probability of A given B as P(A and B)/P(B); interpret independence of A and B in terms of conditional probability (i.e., the conditional probability of A given B is the same as the probability of A and the conditional probability of B given A is the same as the probability of B)

High School Mathematics  Algebra II
A  Algebra
 explain why the xcoordinates of the points where the graphs of the equations y = f(x) and y = g(x) intersect are the solutions of the equation f(x) = g(x); find the solutions approximately (e.g., using a graph, find the solution to a system of equations where f(x) and/or g(x) are rational functions)
 represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or nonviable options in a modeling context (e.g., represent inequalities describing nutritional and cost constraints on combinations of different foods)
 understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials
 identify zeros of polynomials when suitable factorizations are available, and use the zeros to construct a rough graph of the function defined by the polynomial
 rewrite simple rational expressions in different forms using inspection, long division, or a computer algebra system; write a(x)/b(x) in the form q(x) + r(x)/b(x), where a(x), b(x), q(x), and r(x) are polynomials with the degree of r(x) less than the degree of b(x)
 use the properties of exponents to transform expressions for exponential functions
 solve simple rational and radical equations in one variable, and give examples showing how extraneous solutions may arise
 create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales (i.e., create and graph equations in two variables to describe radical functions, rational functions, etc.)
 understand that rational expressions form a system analogous to the rational numbers, closed under addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division by a nonzero rational expression; add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions
 solve quadratic equations in one variable
 derive the formula for the sum of a finite geometric series (when the common ratio is not 1), and use the formula to solve problems (e.g., calculate mortgage payments)
 use the structure of an expression to rewrite it in different equivalent forms [e.g., see x4  y4 as ((x²) (y²))², thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as (x²y²)(x²+y²)]
 interpret parts of an expression such as terms, factors, and coefficients
 create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems (i.e., create equations in one variable that describes simple rational functions, exponential functions, etc.)
 know and apply that the Binomial Theorem gives the expansion of (x + y)^n in powers of x and y for a positive integer n, where x and y are any numbers, with coefficients determined using Pascal’s Triangle
 rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations
 interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context
 choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression
 know and apply the Remainder Theorem: for a polynomial p(x) and a number a, the remainder on division by x  a is p(a), so p(a) = 0 if and only if (x  a) is a factor of p(x)
 prove polynomial identities and use them to describe numerical relationships (e.g., the polynomial identity (x² + y²)² = (x²  y²)² + (2xy)² can be used to generate Pythagorean triples)
 interpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity (e.g., interpret P(1+r) as the product of P and a factor not depending on P)
 solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., x²= 49), taking square roots, factoring, completing the square, and using the quadratic formula, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation; recognize when the quadratic formula gives complex solutions and write them as a ± bi for real numbers a and b
B  Statistics and Probability
 use the mean and standard deviation of a data set to fit it to a normal distribution and to estimate population percentages; recognize that there are data sets for which such a procedure is not appropriate; use calculators, spreadsheets, and tables to estimate areas under the normal curve
 decide if a specified model is consistent with results from a given datagenerating process (e.g., a model says a spinning coin falls heads up with probability 5; would a result of 5 tails in a row cause you to question the model?)
 evaluate reports based on data
 recognize the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies; explain how randomization relates to each
 understand statistics as a process for making inferences about population parameters based on a random sample from that population
 use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center (i.e., median, mean) and spread (i.e., interquartile, range, standard deviation) of two or more different data sets
 use data from a randomized experiment to compare two treatments; use simulations to decide if differences between parameters are significant
 use data from a sample survey to estimate a population mean or proportion; develop a margin of error through the use of simulation models for random sampling
C  Functions
 identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, kf(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them
 graph polynomial functions, identifying zeros when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior
 calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval; estimate the rate of change from a graph
 graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases
 verify by composition that one function is the inverse of another
 graph exponential and logarithmic functions, showing intercepts and end behavior
 combine standard function types using arithmetic operations (e.g., build a function that models the temperature of a cooling body by adding a constant function to a decaying exponential, and relate these functions to the model)
 use the process of factoring and completing the square in a quadratic function to show zeros, extreme values, and symmetry of the graph, and interpret these in terms of a context
 find inverse functions
 read values of an inverse function from a graph or a table, given that the function has an inverse
 express as a logarithm the solution to ab^(ct) = d where a, c, and d are numbers and the base b is 2, 10, or e; evaluate the logarithm using technology
 write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities (e.g., quadratic, polynomial, rational, radical, exponential, logarithmic)
 understand the inverse relationship between exponents and logarithms and use this relationship to solve problems involving logarithms and exponents
 compare properties of two functions each represented algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, and/or by a verbal description
 compose functions
 use the properties of exponents to interpret expressions for exponential functions
 solve an equation of the form f(x) = c for a simple function f that has an inverse and write an expression for the inverse (e.g., f(x) = 2(x^3) or f(x) = (x+1)/(x1) for x?1)
 graph rational functions, identifying zeros and asymptotes when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior
 relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes (e.g., if the function h(n) gives the number of personhours it takes to assemble n engines in a factory, then the positive integers would be an appropriate domain for the function)
 using tables, graphs, equations, and verbal descriptions, interpret the key characteristics of a function which models the relationship between two quantities; sketch a graph showing key features, including intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior
 graph square root, cube root, and piecewisedefined functions, including step functions and absolute value functions
 write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function
D  Number and Quantity
 know there is a complex number i such that i² = 1, and every complex number has the form a + bi with a and b real
 find the conjugate of a complex number; use conjugates to find quotients of complex numbers
 know the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra; show that it is true for quadratic polynomials
 rewrite expressions involving radicals and rational exponents using the properties of exponents
 explain how the definition of the meaning of rational exponents follows from extending the properties of integer exponents to those values, allowing for a notation for radicals in terms of rational exponents
 solve quadratic equations with real coefficients that have complex solutions
 use the relation i² = 1 and the commutative, associative, and distributive properties to add, subtract, and multiply complex numbers
 extend polynomial identities to the complex numbers (e.g., rewrite x² + 4 as (x + 2i)(x  2i))

High School Mathematics  Precalculus
A  Algebra
 represent a system of linear equations as a single matrix equation in a vector variable
 find the inverse of a matrix if it exists and use it to solve systems of linear equations (using technology for matrices of dimension 3x3 or greater)
 solve a simple system consisting of a linear equation and a quadratic equation in two variables algebraically and graphically
B  Functions
 graph trigonometric functions, showing period, midline, and amplitude
 explain how the unit circle in the coordinate plane enables the extension of trigonometric functions to all real numbers, interpreted as radian measures of angles traversed counterclockwise around the unit circle
 produce an invertible function from a noninvertible function by restricting the domain
 use special triangles to determine geometrically the values of sine, cosine, tangent for pi/3, pi/4 and pi/6, and use the unit circle to express the values of sine, cosine, and tangent for pi  x, pi + x, and 2pi  x in terms of their values for x, where x is any real number
 use the unit circle to explain symmetry (odd and even) and periodicity of trigonometric functions
 find inverse functions
 understand radian measure of an angle as the length of the arc on the unit circle subtended by the angle
 use inverse functions to solve trigonometric equations that arise in modeling contexts; evaluate the solutions using technology, and interpret them in terms of the context
 understand that restricting a trigonometric function to a domain on which it is always increasing or always decreasing allows its inverse to be constructed
 choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified amplitude, frequency, and midline
 graph functions expressed algebraically and show key features of the graph both by hand and by using technology
 prove the addition and subtraction formulas for sine, cosine, and tangent and use them to solve problems
 using tables, graphs, and verbal descriptions, interpret the key characteristics of a function which models the relationship between two quantities; sketch a graph showing key features including: intercepts; interval where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity
 prove the Pythagorean identity (sin A)² + (cos A)² = 1 and use it to find sin A, cos A, or tan A, given sin A, cos A, or tan A, and the quadrant of the angle
C  Geometry
 derive the equation of a parabola given a focus and
 prove the Laws of Sines and Cosines and use them to solve problems
 derive the formula A = (1/2)ab sin(C) for the area of a triangle by drawing an auxiliary line from a vertex perpendicular to the opposite side
 derive the equations of ellipses and hyperbolas given the foci, using the fact that the sum or difference of distances from the foci is constant
 understand and apply the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines to find unknown measurements in right and nonright triangles (e.g., surveying problems, resultant forces)
D  Number and Quantity
 recognize vector quantities as having both magnitude and direction; represent vector quantities by directed line segments, and use appropriate symbols for vectors and their magnitudes
 add and subtract vectors
 solve problems involving velocity and other quantities that can be represented by vectors
 understand vector subtraction v  w as v + (w), where (w) is the additive inverse of w, with the same magnitude as w and pointing in the opposite direction; represent vector subtraction graphically by connecting the tips in the appropriate order, and perform vector subtraction componentwise
 understand that the zero and identity matrices play a role in matrix addition and multiplication similar to the role of 0 and 1 in the real numbers; the determinant of a square matrix is nonzero if and only if the matrix has a multiplicative inverse
 represent complex numbers on the complex plane in rectangular and polar form (including real and imaginary numbers), and explain why the rectangular and polar forms of a given complex number represent the same number
 calculate the distance between numbers in the complex plane as the modulus of the difference, and the midpoint of a segment as the average of the numbers at its endpoints
 work with 2x2 matrices as transformations of the plane, and interpret the absolute value of the determinant in terms of area
 find the conjugate of a complex number; use conjugates to find moduli and quotients of complex numbers
 add, subtract, and multiply matrices of appropriate dimensions
 given two vectors in magnitude and direction form, determine the magnitude and direction of their sum
 understand that, unlike multiplication of numbers, matrix multiplication for square matrices is not a commutative operation, but still satisfies the associative and distributive properties
 add vectors endtoend, componentwise, and by the parallelogram rule; understand that the magnitude of a sum of two vectors is typically not the sum of the magnitudes
 multiply a vector (regarded as a matrix with one column) by a matrix of suitable dimensions to produce another vector; work with matrices as transformations of vectors
 represent addition, subtraction, multiplication, and conjugation of complex numbers geometrically on the complex plane; use properties of this representation for computation
 find the components of a vector by subtracting the coordinates of an initial point from the coordinates of a terminal point
 compute the magnitude of a scalar multiple cv using cv = cv; compute the direction of cv knowing that when cv not equal to 0, the direction of cv is either along v (for c > 0) or against v (for c < 0)
 represent scalar multiplication graphically by scaling vectors and possibly reversing their direction; perform scalar multiplication componentwise, (e.g., as c(vx, vy) = (cvx, cvy))
 multiply matrices by scalars to produce new matrices, (e.g., as when all of the payoffs in a game are doubled)
 multiply a vector by a scalar
 use matrices to represent and manipulate data, (e.g., to represent payoffs or incidence relationships in a network)
E  Statistics and Probability
 evaluate and compare strategies on the basis of expected values (e.g., compare a high deductible versus a lowdeductible automobile insurance policy using various, but reasonable, chances of having a minor or a major accident)
 analyze decisions and strategies using probability concepts (e.g., product testing, medical testing, pulling a hockey goalie at the end of a game)
 develop a probability distribution for a random variable defined for a sample space in which probabilities are assigned empirically; find the expected value (e.g., find a current data distribution on the number of TV sets per household in the United States, and calculate the expected number of sets per household; how many TV sets would you expect to find in 100 randomly selected households?)
 calculate the expected value of a random variable; interpret it as the mean of the probability distribution
 develop a probability distribution for a random variable defined for a sample space in which theoretical probabilities can be calculated; find the expected value (e.g., find the theoretical probability distribution for the number of correct answers obtained by guessing on all five questions of a multiplechoice test where each question has four choices, and find the expected grade under various grading schemes)
 find the expected payoff for a game of chance (e.g., find the expected winnings from a state lottery ticket or a game at a fastfood restaurant)
 weigh the possible outcomes of a decision by assigning probabilities to payoff values and finding expected values
 apply the general Multiplication Rule in a uniform probability model, P(A and B) = [P(A)]x[P(BA)]
=[P(B)]x[P(AB)], and interpret the answer in terms of the model

define a random variable for a quantity of interest by assigning a numerical value to each event in a sample space; graph the corresponding probability distribution using the same graphical displays as for data distributions

use probabilities to make fair (equally likely) decisions (e.g., drawing by lots, using a random number generator)

use permutations and combinations to compute probabilities of compound events and solve problems

High School Mathematics  Accelerated Precalculus
A  Algebra
 graph and identify characteristics of simple polar equations including lines, circles, cardioids, limaçons and roses
 convert between Cartesian and parametric form
 represent a system of linear equations as a single matrix equation in a vector variable
 use mathematical induction to find and prove formulae for sums of finite series
 express coordinates of points in rectangular and polar form
 describe parametric representations of plane curves
 establish and utilize trigonometric identities to simplify expressions and verify equivalence statements (e.g., double angle, half angle, reciprocal, quotient, pythagorean, even, and odd)
 find the inverse of a matrix if it exists and use it to solve systems of linear equations (using technology for matrices of dimension 3x3 or greater)
 solve a simple system consisting of a linear equation and a quadratic equation in two variables algebraically and graphically
 graph equations in parametric form showing direction and endpoints where appropriate
B  Functions
 understand that restricting a trigonometric function to a domain on which it is always increasing or always decreasing allows its inverse to be constructed
 graph trigonometric functions, showing period, midline, and amplitude
 use special triangles to determine geometrically the values of sine, cosine, tangent, cosecant, secant, cotangent for pi/3, pi/4 and pi/6, and use the unit circle to express the values of sine, cosine, tangent, cosecant, secant, and cotangent for pi  x, pi + x, and 2pi  x in terms of their values for x, where x is any real number
 use inverse functions to solve trigonometric equations that arise in modeling contexts; evaluate the solutions using technology, and interpret them in terms of the context
 graph functions expressed algebraically and show key features of the graph both by hand and by using technology
 explain how the unit circle in the coordinate plane enables the extension of trigonometric functions to all real numbers, interpreted as radian measures of angles traversed counterclockwise around the unit circle
 using tables, graphs, and verbal descriptions, interpret the key characteristics of a function which models the relationship between two quantities; sketch a graph showing key features including: intercepts; interval where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity
 explore the continuity of functions of two independent variables in terms of the limits of such functions as (x,y) approaches a given point in the plane
 choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified amplitude, frequency, and midline
 prove the Pythagorean identity (sin A)² + (cos A)² = 1 and use it to find sin A, cos A, or tan A, given sin A, cos A, or tan A, and the quadrant of the angle
 prove the addition, subtraction, and double angle formulas for sine, cosine, and tangent and use them to solve problems
 find inverse functions
 use the unit circle to explain symmetry (odd and even) and periodicity of trigonometric functions
 produce an invertible function from a noninvertible function by restricting the domain
 understand radian measure of an angle as the length of the arc on the unit circle subtended by the angle
C  Geometry
 prove the Laws of Sines and Cosines and use them to solve problems
 derive the equations of ellipses and hyperbolas given the foci, using the fact that the sum or difference of distances from the foci is constant
 derive the equation of a parabola given a focus and directrix
 derive the formula A = (1/2)ab sin(C) for the area of a triangle by drawing an auxiliary line from a vertex perpendicular to the opposite side
 understand and apply the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines to find unknown measurements in right and nonright triangles (e.g., surveying problems, resultant forces)
D  Number and Quantity
 multiply a vector by a scalar
 multiply a vector (regarded as a matrix with one column) by a matrix of suitable dimensions to produce another vector; work with matrices as transformations of vectors
 work with 2x2 matrices as transformations of the plane, and interpret the absolute value of the determinant in terms of area
 represent addition, subtraction, multiplication, and conjugation of complex numbers geometrically on the complex plane; use properties of this representation for computation
 add and subtract vectors
 understand vector subtraction v  w as v + (w), where (w) is the additive inverse of w, with the same magnitude as w and pointing in the opposite direction; represent vector subtraction graphically by connecting the tips in the appropriate order, and perform vector subtraction componentwise
 understand that the zero and identity matrices play a role in matrix addition and multiplication similar to the role of 0 and 1 in the real The determinant of a square matrix is nonzero if and only if the matrix has a multiplicative inverse
 recognize vector quantities as having both magnitude and direction; represent vector quantities by directed line segments, and use appropriate symbols for vectors and their magnitudes (e.g., v, v, v, v)
 calculate the distance between numbers in the complex plane as the modulus of the difference, and the midpoint of a segment as the average of the numbers at its endpoints
 use matrices to represent and manipulate data, (e.g., to represent payoffs or incidence relationships in a network)
 multiply matrices by scalars to produce new matrices, (e.g., as when all of the payoffs in a game are doubled)
 represent scalar multiplication graphically by scaling vectors and possibly reversing their direction; perform scalar multiplication componentwise, (e.g., as c(vx, vy) = (cvx, cvy))
 find the conjugate of a complex number; use conjugates to find moduli and quotients of complex numbers
 add, subtract, and multiply matrices of appropriate dimensions
 understand that, unlike multiplication of numbers, matrix multiplication for square matrices is not a commutative operation, but still satisfies the associative and distributive properties
 compute the magnitude of a scalar multiple cv using cv = cv; compute the direction of cv knowing that when cv not equal to 0, the direction of cv is either along v (for c > 0) or against v (for c < 0)
 represent complex numbers on the complex plane in rectangular and polar form (including real and imaginary numbers), and explain why the rectangular and polar forms of a given complex number represent the same number
 solve problems involving velocity and other quantities that can be represented by vectors
 add vectors endtoend, componentwise, and by the parallelogram rule; understand that the magnitude of a sum of two vectors is typically not the sum of the magnitudes
 given two vectors in magnitude and direction form, determine the magnitude and direction of their sum
 find the components of a vector by subtracting the coordinates of an initial point from the coordinates of a terminal point
E  Statistics and Probability
 develop a probability distribution for a random variable defined for a sample space in which probabilities are assigned empirically; find the expected value (e.g., find a current data distribution on the number of TV sets per household in the United States, and calculate the expected number of sets per household; how many TV sets would you expect to find in 100 randomly selected households?)
 calculate the expected value of a random variable; interpret it as the mean of the probability distribution
 understand statistics as a process for making inferences about population parameters based on a random sample from that population
 recognize the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies; explain how randomization relates to each
 weigh the possible outcomes of a decision by assigning probabilities to payoff values and finding expected values
 analyze decisions and strategies using probability concepts (e.g., product testing, medical testing, pulling a hockey goalie at the end of a game)
 find the expected payoff for a game of chance (e.g., find the expected winnings from a state lottery ticket or a game at a fastfood restaurant)
 apply the general Multiplication Rule in a uniform probability model, P(A and B)= [P(A)]x[P(BA)]=[P(B)]x[P(AB)], and interpret the answer in terms of the model
 use permutations and combinations to compute probabilities of compound events and solve problems
 evaluate reports based on data
 use data from a sample survey to estimate a population mean or proportion; develop a margin of error through the use of simulation models for random sampling
 use probabilities to make fair decisions (e.g., drawing by lots, using a random number generator)
 develop a probability distribution for a random variable defined for a sample space in which theoretical probabilities can be calculated; find the expected value (e.g., find the theoretical probability distribution for the number of correct answers obtained by guessing on all five questions of a multiplechoice test where each question has four choices, and find the expected grade under various grading schemes)
 use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center (median, mean) and spread(interquartile, range, standard deviation) of two or more different data sets
 decide if a specified model is consistent with results from a given datagenerating process, (e.g., using simulation; for example, a model says a spinning coin falls heads up with probability 0.5; would a result of 5 tails in a row cause you to question the model?)
 use data from a randomized experiment to compare two treatments; use simulations to decide if differences between parameters are significant
 use the mean and standard deviation of a data set to fit it to a normal distribution and to estimate population percentages; recognize that there are data sets for which such a procedure is not appropriate; use calculators, spreadsheets, and tables to estimate areas under the normal curve
 evaluate and compare strategies on the basis of expected values (e.g., compare a high deductible versus a lowdeductible automobile insurance policy using various, but reasonable, chances of having a minor or a major accident)
 define a random variable for a quantity of interest by assigning a numerical value to each event in a sample space; graph the corresponding probability distribution using the same graphical displays as for data distributions

High School Mathematics  Calculus
A  Process Skills
 solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other areas
 create and use pictures, manipulatives, models, and symbols to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas
 use representations to model and interpret physical, social, and mathematical phenomena
 organize and consolidate mathematics thinking
 select and use various types of reasoning and methods of proof
 communicate mathematical thinking coherently to peers, teachers, and others
 build new mathematical knowledge through problemsolving
 analyze and evaluate the mathematical thinking and strategies of others
 recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics
 recognize reasoning and proof (evidence) as fundamental aspects of mathematics
 use the terminology and language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely
 investigate, develop, and evaluate mathematical arguments and proofs
 monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problemsolving
 make and investigate mathematical conjectures
 use appropriate technology to solve mathematical problems
 select, apply, and translate among mathematical representations to solve problems
 recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas
 explain how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to produce a coherent whole
 apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems
B  Functions
 apply concepts of functions including domain, range, intercepts, symmetry, asymptotes, zeros, odd, even, and inverse
 identify and apply properties of algebraic, trigonometric, piecewise, absolute value, exponential, and logarithmic functions
 apply the algebra of functions by finding sum, product, quotient, composition, and inverse, where they exist
C  Limits and Continuity
 evaluate limits of functions and apply properties of limits, including onesided limits
 indicate where a function is continuous and where it is discontinuous
 estimate limits from graphs or tables of data
 apply the definition of continuity to a function at a point
 describe asymptotic behavior in terms of limits involving infinity
 identify types of discontinuities graphically and analytically
 calculate limits using algebra
D  Derivatives
 apply the rules of differentiation to trigonometric functions, such as product, quotient, and chain rules, including successive derivatives
 determine if a function is differentiable over an interval
 determine where a function fails to be differentiable
 interpret derivative as a rate of change in the context of speed, velocity, and acceleration
 apply the chain rule to composite functions, implicitly defined relations, and related rates of change
 define the derivative of a function in various ways: the limit of the difference quotient, the slope of the tangent line at a point, instantaneous rate of change, and the limit of the average rate of change
 apply the rules of differentiation, such as product and quotient rules, to algebraic functions, including successive derivatives
E  Applications of Derivatives
 solve optimization problems
 apply the extreme value theorem to problem situations
 use the relationships between f(x), f'(x), and f"(x) to determine the increasing/decreasing behavior of f(x); determine the critical point(s) of f(x); determine the concavity of f(x) over an interval; and determine the point(s) of inflection of f(x)
 apply the derivative to determine: the slope of a curve at a point, the equation of the tangent line to a curve at a point, and the equation of the normal line to a curve at a point
 given various pieces of information, sketch of graph(s) of f(x), f'(x), and f"(x)
 apply Rolle's Theorem and the Mean Value Theorem
 find absolute (global) and relative (local) extrema
 model rates of change involved with related rates problems
F  Integrals
 calculate area by a definite integral of Riemann sums over equal subdivisions
 evaluate integrals by substitution of variables (including change of limits for definite integrals)
 calculate areas by evaluation sums using sigma notation
 relate the definite integral to the concept of the area under a curve; define and apply the properties of the definite integral
 define the antiderivative and apply its properties to problems such as distance and velocity from acceleration with initial condition, growth, and decay
 compute Riemann sums using left, right, and midpoint evaluations and trapezoids
 identify and use the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus in evaluation of definite integrals
 evaluate integrals following directly from derivatives of basic functions
G  Applications of the Integral
 evaluate the area between curves using integration formulas
 evaluate the volume of a solid of revolutions using the disk or washer method
 apply the integral to the average or mean value of a function on an interval
 evaluate the volume of a solid using known crosssections
H  Reading Across the Curriculum
 read and discuss mathematical material to establish context for subject matter, develop mathematical vocabulary, and develop an awareness of current research

High School Mathematics  Advanced Calculus II
A  Process Skills
 use appropriate technology to solve mathematical problems
 select, apply, and translate among mathematical representations to solve problems
 use representations to model and interpret physical, social, and mathematical phenomena
 apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems
 make and investigate mathematical conjectures
 build new mathematical knowledge through problemsolving
 select and use various types of reasoning and methods of proof
 explain how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to produce a coherent whole
 use the terminology and language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely
 monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problemsolving
 recognize reasoning and proof (evidence) as fundamental aspects of mathematics
 investigate, develop, and evaluate mathematical arguments and proofs
 recognize and apply mathematics in context outside of mathematics
 communicate mathematical thinking coherently to peers, teachers, and others
 analyze and evaluate the mathematical thinking and strategies of others
 solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other areas
 organize and consolidate mathematics thinking
 recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas
 create and use pictures, manipulatives, models, and symbols to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas
B  Integrals
 evaluate integrals using integration by parts
 evaluate integrals of rational functions using partial fractions
 evaluate improper integrals
C  Functions
 apply concepts of functions including domain, range, intercepts, and symmetry
D  Geometry
 define parabolas, ellipses, and hyperbolas geometrically
 explain the role of conic sections in the reflection of light and sound
 express curves in parametric form
 use Pappus's Theorem on Surface Area to find area of a surface
 calculate the area of a surface generated by revolution
 sketch curves in polar coordinates
 calculate arc length using integrals
 calculate the area of a region with boundary given in polar coordinates
 find equations of tangents to curves given parametrically
E  Sequences
 write a given sequence in sigma notation
 determine the convergence of improper integrals
 calculate limits of sequences with indeterminate forms
 state the convergence or divergence of a sequence
 find least upper bounds and greatest lower bounds
 determine the limit of a sequence
 calculate the limit of a sequence using L'Hospital's Rule
F  Series
 find the Lagrange form of the remainder of a series and use it to test for accuracy of the polynomial
 find the interval of convergence for a power series
 differentiate and integrate power series
 evaluate the sum of series
 test for convergence of MacLaurin series
 determine if a series converges or diverges using the integral test, basic comparison test, limit comparison test, root test, and the ratio test
 find a Taylor polynomial for given functions and use them to estimate function values
 apply Taylor's Theorem to find the Taylor polynomial of a given function for a given value
 test for absolute and conditional converges of alternating series
G  Vectors
 find the volume of parallelepipeds
 find unit normal vectors for a plane
 find equations for a plane
 calculate distance between points in 3space
 find points of intersections of intersecting vectors
 write an equation for spheres with given conditions
 calculate distance from a point to a plane
 calculate the angle between two vectors
 find vector parameterizations for lines
 find direction angles of a vector
 determine whether vectors are parallel, skew, or intersecting
 find the angle between two planes
 determine the coplanarity of vectors
 find a set of scalar parametric equations for lines formed by the intersection of planes
 calculate the norm of a vector
 find a unit vector for a given vector
 calculate dot products
 calculate cross products
 find projection vectors
H  Vector Calculus
 find the angular speed and the magnitude of the acceleration of a particle moving along a curve
 integrate vectors
 sketch curves defined by vectors
 find the tangent vector at a given point
 calculate the arc length of a curve defined in vector form
 calculate acceleration vectors
 apply the rules of differentiation to find the derivative of vectors

High School Mathematics  Advanced Mathematical Decision Making
A  Number and Operations
 extend the understanding of proportional reasoning, ratios, rates, and percents by applying them to various settings to include business, media, and consumerism; use proportional reasoning to solve problems involving ratios; analyze and use averages, weighted averages, and indices; solve problems involving large quantities that are not easily measured; explain how identification numbers, such as UPCs, are created and verified
B  Algebra
 use a variety of network models to organize data in quantitative situations, make informed decisions, and solve problems; solve problems represented by a vertexedge graph, and find critical paths, Euler paths, and minimal spanning trees; construct, analyze, and interpret flow charts to develop an algorithm to describe processes such as quality control procedures; investigate the scheduling of projects using PERT; consider problems that can be resolved by coloring graphs
 use vectors and matrices to organize and describe problem situations; represent situations and solve problems using vectors in areas such as transportation, computer graphics, and the physics of force and motion; represent geometric transformations and solve problems using matrices in fields such as computer animations
 create and analyze mathematical models to make decisions related to earning, investing, spending, and borrowing money; use exponential functions to model change in a variety of financial situations; determine, represent, and analyze mathematical models for income, expenditures, and various types of loans and investments
 analyze and evaluate the mathematics behind various methods of voting and selection; evaluate various voting and selection processes, which include polling biases voting to determine an appropriate method for a given situation; apply various ranking algorithms to determine an appropriate method for a given situation
C  Geometry
 solve geometric problems involving inaccessible distances using basic trigonometric principles, including the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines
 create and use two and threedimensional representations of authentic situations
D  Data Analysis and Probability
 apply statistical methods to design, conduct, and analyze statistical studies
 build the skills and vocabulary necessary to analyze and critique reported statistical information, summaries, and graphical displays
 determine probability and expected value to inform everyday decision making; determine conditional probabilities and probabilities of compound events to make decisions in problem situations; use probabilities to make and justify decisions about risks in everyday life; calculate expected value to analyze mathematical fairness, payoff, and risk
 use functions to model problem situations in both discrete and continuous relationships; determine whether a problem situation involving two quantities is best modeled by a discrete relationship; use linear, exponential, logistic, piecewise and sine functions to construct a model

High School Mathematics  Algebra I Strategies
A  Algebra
 complete the square in a quadratic expression to reveal the maximum or minimum value of the function it defines
 choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression (i.e., reveal the zeros, minimum, or maximum)
 create exponential equations in two variables to represent relationships between quantities expressed in a table of values or verbal representation, graph these exponential equations on coordinate axes with appropriate labels and scales
 add, subtract, and multiply polynomials
 solve systems of linear equations exactly (i.e., algebraically) and approximately (i.e., with graphs), focusing on pairs of linear equations in two variables; solve simple cases by inspection (i.e., 3x + 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 6 have no solution because 3x + 2y cannot simultaneously be 5 and 6)
 graph the solutions to a linear inequality in two variables as a half plane, excluding the boundary in the case of a strict inequality
 graph the solution set to a system of linear inequalities in two variables as the intersection of the corresponding halfplanes
 solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable, including equations with coefficients represented by letters (i.e., solve multistep linear equations with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solution; extend this reasoning to solve compound linear inequalities and literal equations); express solution sets to inequalities using both interval notation (e.g., (2, 10]) and set notation (e.g., {x2 < x =10})
 factor any quadratic expression to reveal the zeros of the function it defines
 represent constraints by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret data points as possible (i.e., a solution) or not possible (i.e., a nonsolution) under the established constraints
 justify the steps of a simple onesolution equation using algebraic properties and the properties of real numbers; justify each step, or if given two or more steps of an equation, explain the progression from one step to the next using properties
 create linear equations in two variables to represent relationships between quantities expressed in a table of values or verbal representation, including writing equations when given a slope and a yintercept or slope and a point; graph these linear equations on coordinate axes with appropriate labels and scales
 show and explain why the elimination method works to solve a system of twovariable equations
 represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and interpret data points as possible (i.e., a solution) or not possible (i.e., a nonsolution) under the established constraints
 interpret the meaning of given formulas or expressions in context of individual terms or factors when given in situations which utilize the formulas or expressions with multiple terms and/or factors
 create quadratic equations in two variables to represent relationships between quantities expressed in a table of values or verbal representation; graph these quadratic equations on coordinate axes with appropriate labels and scales
 solve quadratic equations by inspection, taking square roots, factoring, completing the square, and the quadratic formula, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation (limit to real number solutions)
B  Statistics and Probability
 represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot and describe how the variables are related
 summarize categorical data for two categories in twoway frequency tables; interpret relative frequencies in the context of the data (i.e., including joint, marginal, and conditional relative frequencies); recognize possible associations and trends in the data
 interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (i.e., outliers)
 fit a function to bivariate data; use functions fitted to data to solve problems in the context of the data; use given functions or choose a function suggested by the context; emphasize linear, quadratic, and exponential models
C  Functions
 recognize situations in which one quantity changes at a constant rate per unit interval relative to another
 graph quadratic functions expressed algebraically by hand and by using technology; show and interpret key features including intercepts, maxima, and minima (as determined by the function or by context)
 interpret key features of linear functions represented in graphs, tables, equations, and verbal descriptions (i.e., intercepts, positive, negative; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing); sketch graphs showing these key features when given a verbal description of the relationship
 evaluate functions for inputs in their domains using function notation and interpret statements that use function notation in terms of a context
 understand that a function from one set (the input, called the domain) to another set (the output, called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range [i.e., if f is a function, x is the input (an element of the domain), and f(x) is the corresponding output (an element of the range); the graph of the function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output]
 graph linear functions expressed algebraically in slopeintercept and standard form by hand and by using technology; show and interpret key features including slope and intercepts (as determined by the function or by context)
 compare properties of two functions each represented algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, and/or by a verbal description
 interpret key features of linear, quadratic, and exponential functions represented in graphs, tables, equations, and verbal descriptions (i.e., intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; asymptotes; end behavior); sketch graphs showing these key features when given a verbal description of the relationship
 interpret key features of quadratic functions represented in graphs, tables, equations, and verbal descriptions (i.e., intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior); sketch graphs showing these key features when given a verbal description of the relationship
 graph linear, quadratic, and exponential functions algebraically and show key features of the graph by hand and by using technology
 prove that linear functions grow by equal differences over equal intervals, and that exponential functions grow by equal factors over equal intervals; this can be shown by algebraic proof, with a table showing differences, or by calculating average rates of change over equal intervals
 relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes [e.g., if the function h(n) gives the number of personhours it takes to assemble n engines in a factory, then the positive integers would be an appropriate domain for the function]; represent the domain and range using both interval notation (e.g., (2, 10]) and set notation (e.g., {x2 < x =10})
 graph exponential functions expressed algebraically by hand and by using technology; show and interpret key features including intercepts and end behavior
 calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval; estimate the rate of change from a graph
 write arithmetic sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula; use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms; connect arithmetic sequences to linear functions
 recognize situations in which a quantity grows or decays by a constant percent rate per unit interval relative to another
 use the process of factoring and completing the square in a quadratic function to show zeros, extreme values, and symmetry of the graph, and interpret these in terms of a context (i.e., compare and contrast quadratic functions in standard, vertex, and intercept forms)
 interpret key features of exponential functions represented in graphs, tables, equations, and verbal descriptions (i.e., intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; asymptote; and end behavior); sketch graphs showing these key features when given a verbal description of the relationship
 write geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula; use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms; connect geometric sequences to exponential functions
 show using graphs and tables that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically, or more generally as a polynomial function
D  Number and Quantity
 rewrite expressions involving radicals (i.e., simplify and/or use the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division with radicals within algebraic expressions limited to square roots)

High School Mathematics  Algebra II Strategies
A  Algebra
 solve quadratic equations in one variable
 identify zeros of polynomials when suitable factorizations are available, and use the zeros to construct a rough graph of the function defined by the polynomial
 create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems; include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions
 derive the formula for the sum of a finite geometric series (when the common ratio is not 1), and use the formula to solve problems
 interpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity
 rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations
 use the properties of exponents to transform expressions for exponential functions
 prove polynomial identities and use them to describe numerical relationships
 solve quadratic equations by inspection, taking square roots, completing the square, the quadratic formula and factoring, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation; recognize when the quadratic formula gives complex solutions and write them as a ± bi for real numbers a and b; connect the solutions to the graph and real life application
 represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or nonviable options in a modeling context
 create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales
 interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context
B  Statistics and Probability
 evaluate reports based on data
 decide if a specified model is consistent with results from a given datagenerating process
 use data from a sample survey to estimate a population mean or proportion; develop a margin of error through the use of simulation models for random sampling
C  Functions
 relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes
 use the properties of exponents to interpret expressions for exponential functions
 interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities for a function that models a relationship between two quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship; key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity
 compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions)
 compose polynomial functions
 use the process of factoring and completing the square in a quadratic function to show zeros, extreme values, and symmetry of the graph, and interpret these in terms of a context
 identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs; experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology; include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them
 understand the inverse relationship between exponents and logarithms and use this relationship to solve problems involving logarithms and exponents
 express as a logarithm for exponential models the solution to ab raised to the (ct) power equals d where a, c, and d are numbers and the base b is 2, 10, or e; evaluate the logarithm using technology
 graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases
 calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval; estimate the rate of change from a graph; consider all types of functions
 combine standard function types using arithmetic operations
D  Number and Quantity
 extend polynomial identities to the complex numbers
 use the relation i² = 1 and the commutative, associative, and distributive properties to add, subtract, and multiply complex numbers
 solve quadratic equations with real coefficients that have complex solutions; connect complex solutions to the graphs and examples using the quadratic formula
 rewrite expressions involving radicals and rational exponents using the properties of exponents

High School Mathematics  Applications of Linear Algebra in Computer Science
A  Functions and Linear Equations
 review function notation, domain/codomain, identity/associativity, inverse/invertibility connecting to the computer science concept of perfect secrecy (i.e., encryption)
 review Python psuedo random number generation, calculating probability distribution and interpreting probability events through application of Caesar's Cypher and other examples of cryptosystems
B  Python Programming
 understand how to program and utilize modules and control statements (e.g., loops, conditionals, grouping) in Python
 utilize sets, lists, dictionaries, comprehensions, indexing, and tuples in Python
 program input and output features to read from and write to files in Python
C  The Complex Field
 perform operations of complex number numbers (e.g., absolute value, adding, multiplying) and understand how they produce different transformations
 understand how complex numbers connect to the unit circle and represent them in polar form; perform transformations in polar form and utilize Euler's formula/The First Law of Exponentiation to understand these transformations; connect to performing image transformation on a computer graphic program
 work with the Galois Field to understand further concepts in perfect secrecy and network coding (i.e., providing efficiency in streaming services)
D  The Vector
 connect use of vectors in Galois Field(2) by applying concepts of perfect secrecy, allornothing secret sharing, and programming/solving lights out games
 perform vector operations in R(n) including addition, scalar multiplication, and dot product; review concepts of convex and affine combinations; represent and perform these operations using dictionaries and the Vec.py class in Python
 find the distance, its unit vector in the same or opposite direction, the projection of a vector onto a given vector or vector space, dot product, inner product, cross product, and angle between two vectors in Euclidean space
 solve triangular systems of linear equations using uppertriangular systems, backward substitution, and other algorithms
 use the dot product to display the concept of simple authentication schemes and interacting with them, and performing a senator voting record analysis
E  Vector Spaces
 determine if a given set of vectors in a vector space is a spanning set for that vector space and if they are linearly independent
 define and discuss uses of linear combinations and understand how to solve for coefficients or linear combinations, connect to programmed/solved lights out game
 determine if a linear combination is an affine combination and determine if an affine space exists by translating a vector space, represent and affine space as a solution set to a linear system
 find whether a vector is a linear combination of a given finite set of vectors in a vector space and provide this linear combination
 determine whether a provided subset of a vector space is a subspace and find the dimension of a subspace
 define span and what it means for linear combinations to be a span of vectors; connect span to simple authentication schemes; understand the geometric depiction of the span of vectors over R and the geometry of solution sets of homogenous linear equations and systems; understand the geometric interpretations of R^2 and R^3
F  Matrices
 define and understand what the null space is by connecting to concepts of homogenous linear systems/matrix equations, and error correcting codes such as linear codes and Hamming's code
 factor a given matrix into the product of two elementary matrices, find the adjoint of a matrix and use it to find the inverse of the matrix (understanding the conditions for invertibility) or solve a system of linear equations
 generate an augmented coefficient matrix from a system of linear equations
 program transformations in 2D geometry using Python and concepts of matrix operations
 perform matrix operations including transpose, addition, scaler multiplication, dot product, and multiplication; compute the inner and outer product
 program error correcting code concepts such as Hamming's code using matrix operations
 review the structure of a matrix and composition of the identity matrix, determine the size, transpose, inverse, rank, and LUfactorization of a matrix; interpret matrices as vectors
G  The Basis and Dimension
 determine whether a given set of vectors in a vector space forms a basis for that vector space and recognize standards bases in the vector spaces nth dimensional Euclidean space, the set of all polynomials of degree greater than or equal to n
 understand if a linear function is invertible utilizing the concept of dimension and determine if a function is onto or onetoone; discuss in connection with KernalImage Theorem and Rank Nullity Theorem, demonstrate using checksums
 discuss rank theorem and demonstrate its use via the Simple Authentication Schema in computer science
 connect the Exchange Lemma to the concept of camera image perspective rendering in a Python lab
 define the coordinate representation of a basis and connect to lossy compression in computer science; find a basis for the column or row space of a matrix, and find a basis for and the dimension of the nullspace of a matrix
 define what it means for vectors to be linearly dependent and linearly independent and define the SuperfluousVector Lemma; perform tests of linear dependence
 utilize direct sum to add vector spaces and find the basis for the direct sum and understand if two subspaces are complementary
 review the minimum spanning forest problem in GF(2) in connection with the Grow and Shrink Algorithms and how to formulate the problem in linear algebra
 find the transition matrix from one basis to another (i.e., change of basis)
 define and determine the dimension and rank of a basis (and therefore vector space); use it to prove the Morphing Lemma and prove the SupersetBasis Lemma
 demonstrate that every vector space has a basis and any finite set of vectors contains a basis for its span (e.g., SubsetBasis Lemma)
H  Gaussian Elimination
 solve systems of linear equations and finding the basis for a Null space by use of Gaussian Elimination, GaussJordan Elimination, LU factorization, and Cramer's Rule; show how the simple authentication scheme can be attacked/improved over GF(2) using Guassian Elimination
 understand how Threshold Secret Sharing works in conjunction with Gaussian Elimination through a programming lab in Python
 understand how factoring integers can be performed using Euclid's algorithm and utilizing prime set factors in Python
 use elementary row operations to create matrices in rowechelon and reduced rowechelon form
I  Orthogonalization
 define and perform QR factorization of a matrix to compute solutions to the matrix equation Ax=b; use to perform the application of least squares to find the line or curve of best fit (linear/quadratic) to approximate data in the industrial espionage problem/sensor node problem/machine learning problem
 find an orthogonal basis for a given basis/subspace/inner product space by applying the Gram Schmidt orthonormalization process
 given the solution space of a homogenous system of linear equations, find an orthonormal basis
 determine if two given vectors/sets of vectors(complements)/subspaces are orthogonal, parallel, or neither; find the orthogonal component of a given subspace
 use orthogonalization to find the closest point in the span of many vectors, compute a basis/subset basis, direct sums of complements
J  Special Bases
 utilize compression by suppression to find the closest ksparse vector coordinate representation in terms of an orthogonal basis
 understand how images and sounds can be represented as wavelets and the bases representation of wavelets as well as wavelet transformation, implementation, and decomposition, perform Python lab on using wavelets to perform file compression
 define and demonstrate the Fourier transform connecting how a sound is stored as a sequence of amplitude samples and how the Fast Fourier Transform Algorithm is utilized/derived/coded
K  The Eigenvalue/Eigenvector
 connect use of the determinant and eigenvectors to code functionality of Google's PageRank search engine in Python
 discuss how Markov chains work to model various concepts such as population movement, dance patterns, literary documents, and Google's search engine PageRank
 utilize eigenvalues/vectors and single value decomposition to program face recognition software (Eigenfaces)
 determine an orthogonal matrix that diagonalizes a given matrix
 find a nonsingular matrix(D) for a given matrix (if one exists) such that D^1AD is diagonal; find a basis for the domain of a linear transformation such that the matrix of the linear transformation relative to the basis is diagonal
 find the determinant, minors, and cofactors of a given matrix and use the determinant to find whether a given matrix is singular/nonsingular; use determinant properties to characterize eigenvalues
 find the eigenvalues of a given symmetric matrix and find the dimension of the corresponding eigenspace
 find the characteristic equation and eigenvalues/corresponding eigenvectors of a given matrix and determine if the matrix is diagonizable/symmetric/orthogonal
 verify the eigenvalue/eigenvector of a given matrix while understanding the geometric interpretation and coordinate representation; connect to the Internet Worm case of 1988; perform eigen theorem proofs
L  Linear Programming
 perform a Python lab to explore concepts of linear programming
 explore samples of linear programming cases including the diet problem, the vertices of polyhedra (polyhedral combinatorics), the simplex algorithm, game theory, nonzerosum games, and compressed sensing for MRI imaging
 perform a machine learning lab on a large set of health care data that incorporates concepts of linear programming

High School Mathematics  College Readiness Mathematics
A  Algebra
 justify the steps of a simple, onesolution equation using algebraic properties and the properties of real numbers. Justify own steps, or, if given two or more steps of an equation, explain the progression from one step to the next using the properties
 create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems in context; include equations arising from linear, quadratic simple rational, and exponential functions integer inputs only; identify variables and describe their relationship in context
 interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context
 interpret parts of an expression, such as, but not limited to, terms, factors and coefficients, in context
 analyze and solve linear equations in one variable
 use graphs, tables, or successive approximations and use technology to explain and show that the solution to the equation f(x) = g(x) is the xvalue where the yvalues of f(x) and g(x) are the same
 given situations which utilize formulas or expressions with multiple terms and/or factors, interpret the meaning (in context) of individual terms or factors
 graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways
 factor any quadratic expression to reveal the zeros of the function defined by the expression
 solve systems of linear equations exactly and approximately in context, focusing on pairs of linear equations in two variables
 solve and graph linear equations and inequalities in one variable, including equations with coefficients represented by letters
 represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities; interpret data points as viable or nonviable under the established constraints
 use the structure of an expression to rewrite it in different equivalent forms
 solve quadratic equations by inspection, taking square roots, factoring, completing the square, and the quadratic formula, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation limited to real number solutions
 use the method of completing the square to transform any quadratic equation in x into an equation of the form (x  p)² = q that has the same solutions; derive the quadratic formula from ax² + bx + c = 0
 solve a simple system consisting of a linear equation and a quadratic equation in two variables algebraically and graphically
 graph and analyze the solution set to a linear inequality in two variables in context
 solve quadratic equations in one variable
 choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression
 use right triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a nonvertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y = mx+ b for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b
 rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest using the same reasoning as in solving equations
 show and explain why the elimination method works to solve a system of twovariable equations
 solve simple rational and radical equations in one variable, demonstrate understanding, and give examples showing how extraneous solutions may arise
 convert a quadratic expression to vertex form to reveal the maximum or minimum value of the function defined by the expression; complete the square, use the axis of symmetry, or use the midpoint of the xintercepts
 create linear, quadratic, and exponential equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales
B  Number and Quantity
 use units within multistep problems and formulas; interpret units of input and resulting units of output in context
 convert units and rates, reasoning quantitatively and using dimensional analysis
 use units of measure (linear, area, capacity, rates, and time) as a way to understand problems
 define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive given a situation, context, or problem, determine, identify, use, and justify appropriate quantities for representing the situation
 identify , use, and record appropriate units of measure within context, within data displays, and on graphs
C  Functions
 identify and compare the effects on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs; experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology; include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them
 construct a function to model a linear relationship between two Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph; interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values; interpret functions that arise in application in terms of the context
 compare properties of two functions each represented among verbal, tabular, graphic, and algebraic representations of functions
 construct arithmetic and geometric sequences recursively and explicitly, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms; connect arithmetic sequences to linear functions and geometric sequences to exponential functions
 compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions)
 construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two inputoutput pairs (include reading these from a table)
 show and explain, using graphs and tables, that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically, or (more generally) as a polynomial function
 determine an explicit expression and recursive process (steps for calculation) from context
 graph linear and quadratic functions and show intercepts, maxima, and minima as determined by the function or by context
 distinguish between situations that can be modeled with linear functions and with exponential functions
 graph functions expressed algebraically and show key features of the graph, both by hand and by using technology
 recognize situations in which one quantity changes at a constant rate per unit interval relative to another
 interpret the key characteristics of a function that models the relationship between two quantities, using tables, graphs, and verbal descriptions; sketch and analyze a graph showing key features, including intercepts; interval where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity
 understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output; the graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and corresponding output; represent domain and range using interval and set notation
 compare and contrast quadratic functions in standard, vertex, and intercept forms, using the process of factoring and completing the square in a quadratic function to show zeros, extreme values and symmetry of the graph, and interpret these in terms of a context
 recognize situations in which a quantity grows or decays by a constant percent rate per unit interval relative to another
 write a function defined by an expression in different, but equivalent, forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function
 graph exponential and logarithmic functions, showing intercepts and end behavior, and trigonometric functions, showing period, midline, and amplitude
 use the properties of exponents to interpret expressions for exponential functions and classify them as representing exponential growth and decay
 explain that linear functions grow by equal differences over equal intervals and that exponential functions grow by equal factors over equal intervals
 construct a function that models a relationship between two quantities or contexts
 interpret the parameters in a linear function and an exponential function in terms of context; in context, describe what these parameters mean in terms of change and starting value
 interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear
D  Geometry
 use volume formulas for cylinders, pyramids, cones, and spheres to solve problems in context
 apply concepts of density based on area and volume in modeling situations
 give an informal argument for the formulas for the circumference of a circle, for the area of a circle, and for the volume of a cylinder, pyramid, and cone, using dissection arguments, Cavalieri's principle, and informal limit arguments
 interpret and use coordinates to compute perimeters of polygons and areas of triangles and rectangles
 interpret and use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically
 apply geometric methods to solve design problems with multiple representations
E  Statistics and Probability
 recognize and explain the difference between correlation and causation
 interpret the slope (rate of change) and the intercept (constant term) of a linear model in the context of the data
 recognize and analyze the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies; explain how randomization relates to each
 decide which type of function is most appropriate by observing graphed data or charted data, or by analysis of context; emphasize linear, quadratic and exponential models
 summarize categorical data for two categories in twoway frequency tables; interpret relative frequencies in the context of the data (including joint, marginal, and conditional relative frequencies); analyze possible associations and trends in the data
 use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare and describe center (i.e., median, mean) and spread (i.e., interquartile range, mean absolute deviation, standard deviation) in context of two or more different data sets
 understand statistics as a process for making inferences about population parameters in context, based on a random sample from that population
 using a linear association model based on given or collected bivariate data, fit a linear function for a scatter plot that suggests a linear association
 represent and interpret data with plots on the real number line (i.e., dot plots, histograms, and box plots)
 interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (outliers)
 represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related in context
 compute (using technology) and interpret the correlation coefficient "r" of a linear fit; after calculating the line of best fit using technology, students should be able to describe how strong the goodness of fit of the regression is, using "r"

High School Mathematics  Differential Equations
A  First Order Differential Equations
 draw direction fields containing solution curves for first order differential equations by hand and using modeling software
 classify differential equation by type (i.e. ordinary/partial), order, and linearity
 solve first order differential equations and initial value problems using integrating factors
 partially differentiate functions of multiple variables as it pertains to Exact Equations for first order differential equations
 solve first order differential equations that apply to various realworld models including falling bodies, mixtures, population and the Logistic equation, continuously compounded interest, and other physics application
 draw and interpret real world solutions to first order differential equations using modeling software
 solve first order Exact Equations
 use modeling software to solve more complex first order differential equations
 solve separable differential equations for general solutions and initial value problems
B  Second and Higher Order Differential Equations
 recognize the structure of solution sets to higher order linear differential equations, the basic Existence and Uniqueness Theorem, and the generalization of the Wronskian for higher order
 recognize the existence and uniqueness of solutions for second order linear differential equations and a fundamental set of solutions; verify that two solutions form a fundamental set by taking the Wronskian
 recognize systems of differential equations and the basic existence and uniqueness results for the corresponding initial value problems
 solve second order linear homogeneous and nonhomogeneous equations by finding characteristic equations, using the method of undetermined coefficients and variation of parameters
 when given a solution to a nonhomogeneous second order equation, find a second linearly dependent solution using reduction of order
 solve special case nonhomogeneous second order ODE’s including CauchyEuler Equations
 solve second order differential equations that apply to various realworld models such as mass spring systems, electric circuits, and economic growth
 solve higher order constant coefficient homogeneous equations
 determine whether a first or second order differential equation has a unique solution over a given interval by working with the Existence and Uniqueness Theorem
 use vector function notation when discussing the structure of solutions sets for homogeneous systems as it pertains to the Wronskian
C  Systems of Differential Equations
 determine which nonlinear systems are locally linear, and identify the systems’ behavior about each critical point
 apply various population models derived from locally linear systems including LotkaVolterra, competition and cooperation models
 solve constant coefficient homogeneous systems using eigenvalues and eigenvectors; solve systems with real, distinct eigenvalues, as well as those with repeated and imaginary eigenvalues
 plot locally linear systems by hand and using modeling software
 draw Phase Portraits for solutions of homogeneous systems with constant coefficients by hand and using a modeling software
 solve nonhomogeneous systems of ODE’s using the method of undetermined coefficients and variation of parameters
D  Laplace Transforms
 recognize the general uniqueness and existence of solutions for Step functions, and will use the Laplace transform to find solutions to Step functions.
 find the Laplace transform of the Dirac Delta function
 discuss the main properties of the Laplace transform which make it useful for solving initial value problems
 use the integral definition to perform Laplace transforms for functions, such as, but not limited to polynomials, exponentials, and trigonometric functions; use a Laplace table to accurately and efficiently identify Laplace transforms, such as, but not limited to, the transforms for polynomials, exponentials, and trigonometric functions, and the product of these functions
 solve linear systems of differential equations using Laplace transforms
 write piecewise functions as compositions of Step (Heaviside) functions
 solve first and second order differential equations using Laplace transforms that apply to real world fields such as Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
 perform inverse Laplace transforms using a variety of techniques, such as but not limited to, algebraic manipulation partial fraction decomposition
E  Series Solutions
 review Power Series as an introduction to series solutions of differential equations
 recognize ordinary points, recurrence relations, and changing indexes as it relates to series solutions to ODE’s
 find series solutions to first and second order nonlinear initial value problems
F  Mathematical Connections
 identify and describe the contribution of several key mathematicians and scientists to the field of differential equations

High School Mathematics  Engineering Calculus
A  Multidimensional Engineering Analysis
 learn to evaluate matrices and apply their properties to solve engineering problems; calculate determinants of matrices; express systems of linear equations in matrix equation form; use Gaussian elimination to compute solution sets of linear systems
 investigate functions of two and three independent variables to model engineering systems; compute limits of scalar and vectorvalued functions; identify, interpret and graph level curves of multivariate functions; calculate regions of continuity of such functions
 apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering design to solve problems; determine the equations of lines and surfaces using vectors and 3D graphing; apply dot and cross products of vectors to express equations of planes, parallelism, perpendicularity, angles; describe the role of vectors in engineering applications, such as modeling the velocity of moving objects or static forces on structures and objects
 use visual and written communication to express basic design elements in the appropriate mathematics notation; demonstrate fundamentals of technical sketching using computer generated visuals by using the appropriate mathematics scale; present a technical design, using computergenerated model, for an assigned design project utilizing the appropriate scientific units (US standards and SI units)
B  Differentiation In Engineering
 evaluate and apply partial differentiation of multivariable functions with two or more independent variables; compute the first and second partial derivatives of a function; use the general chain rule to determine the partial derivatives of composite functions; compute and apply the gradient of multivariable functions; solve engineering optimization problems by applying partial differentiation or Lagrange multipliers; utilize partial derivatives in developing the appropriate system balances (e.g., mass balance) in engineering problems
C  Multidimensional Integration in Engineering Systems
 apply the techniques of double and triple integration to multivariable scalar and vectorvalued functions; manipulate integrals by changing the order of integration, introducing variable substitutions, or changing to curvilinear coordinates; evaluate and apply line integrals that are independent of path; apply properties of integrals to calculate and represent area, volume, or mass; use integrals of vectors to define and apply the gradient, divergence, or the curl e. Interpret the theorems of Green, Stokes, or Gauss and apply them to the study of realworld phenomena

High School Mathematics  Geometry Strategies
A  Geometry
 use congruence criteria for triangles to solve problems and to prove relationships in geometric figures
 use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to show that two triangles are congruent if and only if corresponding pairs of sides and corresponding pairs of angles are congruent
 prove theorems about lines and angles (i.e., vertical angles are congruent; when a transversal crosses parallel lines, alternate interior angles are congruent and corresponding angles are congruent; points on a perpendicular bisector of a line segment are exactly those equidistant from the segment's endpoints)
 know and apply the precise definitions of angle, circle, perpendicular line, parallel line, and line segment, based on the undefined notions of point, line, distance along a line, and distance around a circular arc
 understand that by similarity, side ratios in right triangles are properties of the angles in the triangle, leading to definitions of trigonometric ratios for acute angles
 describe the effects of dilations, translations, rotations, and reflections on twodimensional figures using coordinates
 use geometric shapes, their measures, and their properties to describe objects (e.g., modeling a tree trunk or a human torso as a cylinder)
 informally prove the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse geometrically (i.e., using area model)
 use volume formulas for cylinders, pyramids, cones, and spheres to solve problems
 prove theorems about parallelograms (i.e., opposite sides are congruent, opposite angles are congruent, the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other, and conversely, rectangles are parallelograms with congruent diagonals)
 prove that all circles are similar (i.e., using transformations; ratio of circumference to the diameter is a constant)
 use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angles of triangles and about the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal
 explain and use the relationship between the sine and cosine of complementary angles
 use trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean Theorem to solve right triangles in applied problems
 apply concepts of density based on area and volume in modeling situations (e.g., persons per square mile, BTUs per cubic foot)
 prove theorems about triangles (i.e., measures of interior angles of a triangle sum to 180 degrees; base angles of isosceles triangles are congruent; the segment joining midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and half the length; the medians of a triangle meet at a point)
 explain how the criteria for triangle congruence (i.e., ASA, SAS, SSS, HL, AAS) follow from the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions
 use coordinates to compute perimeters of polygons and areas of triangles and rectangles (e.g., using the distance formula)
 prove the slope criteria for parallel and perpendicular lines and use them to solve geometric problems (e.g., find the equation of a line parallel or perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point)
 prove theorems about triangles (i.e., a line parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two proportionally, and conversely; the Pythagorean Theorem using triangle similarity)
 use similarity criteria for triangles to solve problems and to prove relationships in geometric figures
 apply geometric methods to solve design problems (e.g., designing an object or structure to satisfy physical constraints or minimize cost; working with typographic grid systems based on ratios)
B  Statistics and Probability
 construct and interpret twoway frequency tables of data when two categories are associated with each object being classified; use the twoway table as a sample space to decide if events are independent and to approximate conditional probabilities (e.g., collect data from a random sample of students in your school on their favorite subject among math, science, and English; estimate the probability that a randomly selected student from your school will favor science given that the student is in tenth grade; do the same for other subjects and compare the results)
 apply the Addition Rule, P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B)  P(A and B), and interpret the answer in context
 find the conditional probability of A given B as the fraction of B's outcomes that also belong to A, and interpret the answer in context

High School Mathematics  Mathematics of Finance
A  Process Skills
 create and use pictures, manipulatives, models, and symbols to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas
 apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems
 use the terminology and language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely
 recognize reasoning and proof (evidence) as fundamental aspects of mathematics
 use appropriate technology to solve mathematical problems
 select and use various types of reasoning and methods of proof
 use representations to model and interpret physical, social, and mathematical phenomena
 recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics
 explain how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to produce a coherent whole
 solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other areas
 recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas
 select, apply, and translate among mathematical representations to solve problems
 analyze and evaluate the mathematical thinking and strategies of others
 investigate, develop, and evaluate mathematical arguments and proofs
 monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problemsolving
 make and investigate mathematical conjectures
 communicate mathematical thinking coherently to peers, teachers, and others
 organize and consolidate mathematics thinking
 build new mathematical knowledge through problemsolving
B  Numbers and Operations
 use fractions, percents, and ratios to solve problems related to stock transactions, credit cards, taxes, budgets, automobile purchases, fuel economy, Social Security, Medicare, retirement planning, checking and saving accounts, and other related finance applications
 apply percent increase and decrease, ratios, and proportions
C  Geometry
 apply the distance formula to trip planning
 apply the concepts of area, volume, scale factors, and scale drawings to planning for housing
 apply the properties of angles and segments in circles to accident investigation data
E  Algebra
 apply linear, quadratic, and cubic functions
 apply greatest integer and piecewise functions
 use basic functions to solve and model problems related to stock transactions, banking and credit, employment and taxes, rent and mortgages, retirement planning, and other related finance applications
 understand domain and range when limited to a financial problem situation
 represent data and solve banking and retirement planning problems using matrices
 apply rational and square root functions
 evaluate investments in banking and retirement planning using simple and compound interest, and future and present value formulas
 apply limits as end behavior of modeling functions
 apply exponential and logarithmic functions
F  Data Analysis and Probability
 use probability, the Monte Carlo method, and expected value model and predict outcomes related to the stock market, retirement planning, insurance, and investing
 draw conclusions about applied problems using decision theory
 recognize and interpret trends related to the stock market, retirement planning, insurance, car purchasing, and home rental or ownership using data displays including bar graphs, line graphs, stock bar charts, candlestick charts, boxandwhisker plots, stem and leaf plots, circle graphs, and scatter plots
 investigate data found in the stock market, retirement planning, transportation, budgeting, and home rental or ownership using measures of central tendency
 use linear, quadratic, and cubic regressions as well as the correlation coefficient to evaluate supply and demand, revenue, profit, and other financial problem situations

High School Mathematics  Mathematics of Industry and Government
A  Deterministic Decision Making
 determine optimal locations and use them to make appropriate decisions
 use advanced linear programming to make decisions
 determine optimal paths and use them to make appropriate decisions
B  Probabilistic Decision Making
 use properties of other distributions (e.g., binomial, geometric, Poisson) to make decisions about optimization and efficiency
 make connections among mathematical ideas and to other disciplines
 solve problems (using appropriate technology)
 reason and evaluate mathematical arguments
 use computer simulations to make decisions
 represent mathematics in multiple ways
 use properties of normal distributions to make decisions about optimization and efficiency
 communicate mathematically
 will use other probabilistic models to make decisions

High School Mathematics  Multivariable Calculus
A  Algebra
 recognize and apply properties of matrices; find the determinants of 2by2 and 3by3 matrices; represent a 3by3 system of linear equations as a matrix and solve the system in multiple ways the inverse matrix, row operations, and Cramer's Rule; apply properties of similar and orthogonal matrices to prove statements about matrices; find and apply the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of a 3by3 matrix; determine if a given set is a vector space; determine whether a vector v is a linear combination of the vectors in S; express a vector in a linearly independent set as a linear combination of the vectors in the set; determine whether a given set of vectors span; determine whether a set of vectors is linearly independent or linearly dependent; show that a set of vectors is a basis for a vector space; find a basis for the null space, row space, and column space of a matrix; find the rank and nullity of a matrix
 investigate the relationship between points, lines, and planes in threedimensions; represent equations of lines in space using vectors; express analytic geometry of three dimensions (equations of planes, parallelism, perpendicularity, angles) in terms of the dot product and cross product of vectors; . recognize conic sections and identify quadric surfaces
 explore functions of two independent variables of the form z = f(x, y) and implicit functions of the form f(x, y, z) = 0; evaluate such functions at a point in the plane; graph the level curves of such functions.; determine points or regions of discontinuity of such functions
B  Derivatives
 explore the continuity of functions of two independent variables in terms of the limits of such functions as (x, y) approaches a given point in the plane
 explore, find, use, and apply partial differentiation of functions of two independent variables of the form z = f(x, y) and implicit functions of the form f(x, y, z) = 0; approximate the partial derivatives at a point of a function defined by a table of data; find expressions for the first and second partial derivatives of a function; define and apply the total differential to approximate realworld phenomena; represent the partial derivatives of a system of two functions in two variables using the Jacobian; find the partial derivatives of the composition of functions using the general chain rule; apply partial differentiation to problems of optimization, including problems requiring the use of the Lagrange multiplier; investigate the differential, tangent plane, and normal lines
 define and apply the gradient, the divergence, and curl in terms of differential vector operations
C  Integration
 apply and interpret the theorems of Green, Stokes, and a. Apply line and surface integrals to functions representing realworld phenomena. b. Recognize, understand, and use line integrals that are independence of path. c. Define and apply the gradient, the divergence, and the curl in terms of integrals of vectors
 integrate functions of the form z = f(x, y) or w = f(x, y, z); define, use, and interpret double and triple integrals in terms of volume and mass; represent integrals of vectors as double and triple integrals; integrate functions through various techniques such as changing the order of integration, substituting variables, or changing to polar coordinates
D  Differential Equations
 use, apply, and solve linear firstorder differential equations; solve linear firstorder differential equations of the form y' + p(x)y = q(x) with an integrating factor; solve homogeneous linear first order differential equations using a variable substitution; solve Clairaut equations; explore the concepts of families of solutions and envelopes; write linear firstorder differential equations that represent realworld phenomena and solve them, such as those arising from Kirchhoff's Law and mixing problems; students will solve linear secondorder differential equations of the form y''+ p(x)y' + q(x)y = c using the characteristic equation where the characteristic equation has two real roots, one real root, or no real roots

High School Mathematics  Number Theory
A  Discrete Mathematics
 solve problems using concepts in graph theory including directed and undirected graphs, the Handshaking Theorem, isomorphisms, paths and pathconnectedness, as well as Euler and Hamilton Paths
 apply counting principles, such as recurrence relations, Polya’s Enumeration Theorem, inclusion exclusion, and the Pigeonhole principle
 apply game theory including Nash Equilibrium and two player zero sum games
B  Logic
 apply quantifiers, conditionals, negations, contrapositives, converses, and inverses to determine the validity of logic statements
 apply quantifiers, conditionals, negations, contrapositives, converses, and inverses to determine the truth value of logical propositions, including, but not limited to, whether a proposition is a tautology, contradiction, or neither.
 represent logical operators such as AND,OR, NOT, NOR, and XOR in symbolic notation and use truth tables and in assessing logical equivalence
 apply modus ponens and modus tollens to determine the validity of logical arguments involving conditionals
 determine truth tables for sentences and use Venn diagrams to illustrate the relationships represented by these truth tables
C  Set Theory
 determine if a relation is an equivalence relation on two sets by showing that the relation satisfies reflexive, symmetric, and transitive properties
 understand that equivalence classes form a partition on a set
 prove set relations, including DeMorgan’s Laws, proving a set is a subset of another set, and proving set equivalence
 recognize that a partition of a set is a collection of pairwise disjoint subsets
 describe sets using set builder notation; define, use notation of, and pictorially represent set theory components, including union, intersection, difference, element of, cardinality, complement, subset, and proper subset; define and determine the power set of a given set
 calculate the union, intersection, difference, and Cartesian product and Power of sets
 recognize that a function is a bijective (injective and surjective) relation on two sets, be able to prove or disprove that a relation is a function, and be able to determine the inverse of a function if it exists
D  Proof Methods
 prove previously recognized mathematical theorems, such as but not limited to the Pythagorean Theorem, the Minimax Theorem, the Binomial Theorem, and Cantor’s Theorem
 differentiate between mathematical axioms, postulates, and theorems
 write theorems containing a hypothesis and conclusion; prove previously recognized mathematical theorems from various Set Theory and Number Theory concepts
 recognize and utilize appropriate methods of proof: direct proof, proof by mathematical induction (including the Principle of Mathematical Induction and the Second Principle of Mathematical Induction), proof by contradiction, proof by contraposition, proofs involving conditional and biconditional statements, proofs involving universal and existential quantifiers, and proof by counterexample
E  Number Theory
 prove statements involving properties of numbers; prove that the square of any odd integer can be expressed at 8k+1 for some integer k; prove there are infinitely many primes; prove that the square root of 2 is irrational
 execute various primality tests to determine if large integers are prime; recognize certain prime numbers as Fermat Numbers or Mersenne Primes
 derive formulas for sums and products of series; derive definitions for various mathematical sequences, such as but not limited to triangular numbers and the Fibonacci numbers
 determine integral solutions to linear Diophantine equations
 apply Divisibility rules to base b number systems
 use mathematical induction to prove results about the natural numbers
 determine the modular inverse of a given integer for any positive integer modulus, if it exists
 define and utilize the greatest integer function to write rules to represent sequences
 find solutions to linear, polynomial, simultaneous, and systems of congruences, and prove results involving congruences and modular arithmetic
 use Fermat Factorization, Pollard Rho Factorization, and Pollard (p1) Factorization to determine the GCD of two integers
 convert integers between a variety of number systems with different bases, including decimal, octal, binary, and hexadecimal
 apply the Chinese Remainder Theorem
 prove results involving divisibility and the greatest common divisor
 use congruences to prove Fermat’s Little Theorem and Wilson’s Theorem
 analyze basic cryptology including Character ciphers, Block ciphers, Hill ciphers, Stream ciphers, Exponentiation ciphers, and Knapsack ciphers
 define and explore concepts involving pseudoprimes
 apply congruences to several real world situations, including but not limited to creating a perpetual calendar, error detection in bit strings, and various types of hashing functions
 apply modular arithmetic concepts; apply the “divides” (ab) relation to the natural numbers and “a (mod m)” for integers a and m
 explore Public Key Cryptography including the RSA cryptosystem
 explore various Prime conjectures, such as but not limited to Bertrand’s Conjecture, the Twin Prime Conjecture, the Legendre Conjecture, and the n²+1 Conjecture
 apply the Euclidean algorithm to determine the GCD of two integers

High School Mathematics  Statistical Reasoning
A  Statistics
 implement a reasonable random method for selecting a sample or for assigning treatments in an experiment
 randomly assign treatments to experimental subjects or objects
 analyze associations between variables and make predictions from one variable to another
 recognize that randomization reduces bias where bias occurs when certain outcomes are systematically more likely to appear
 using simulation, determine the appropriate model to decide if there is a significant difference between two treatment effects
 ask if the difference between two population parameters (or two treatment effects) is due to random variation or if the difference is statistically significant
 recognize that random selection from a population plays a different role than random assignment in an experiment
 describe the distribution for quantitative and categorical data
 analyze associations between two variables
 recognize a population distribution has fixed values of its parameters that are usually unknown
 implement a simple random sample
 formulate questions to clarify the problem at hand and formulate one (or more) questions that can be answered with data
 describe and interpret any outliers or gaps in the distribution
 make predictions and draw conclusions from twovariable data based on data displays
 distinguish between association and causation
 determine the type of study design appropriate for answering a statistical question
 analyze data by selecting appropriate graphical and numerical methods and using these methods to analyze the data
 describe and interpret patterns that exist for the distribution
 describe and interpret the measures of center for the distribution
 use distributions to identify the key features of the data collected
 create an appropriate simulated sampling distribution (using technology) and develop a alpha value
 create twoway tables for twovariable categorical data
 create an appropriate simulated sampling distribution (using technology) and develop a margin of error
 use distributions to compare two or more groups
 determine if there are significant differences between two population parameters or treatment effects
 use graphical and numerical attributes of distributions to make comparisons between distributions
 identify the difference between categorical and quantitative (numerical) data
 analyze patterns and trends in data displays
 interpret results by interpreting the analysis and relating the interpretation to the original question
 create a sampling distribution of a statistic by taking repeated samples from a population (either handson or by simulation with technology)
 determine the type of data used to produce a given graphical display
 describe and interpret the shape of the distribution
 identify the three types of distributions
 distinguish the roles of randomization and sample size with designing studies
 distinguish between the role of randomness and the role of sample size with respect to using a statistic from a sample to estimate a population parameter
 identify whether the data are categorical or quantitative (numerical)
 distinguish between a population distribution, a sample data distribution, and a sampling distribution
 describe and interpret the modal category for the distribution
 create simulated sampling distributions and understand how to use the sampling distribution to make predictions about a population parameter(s) or the difference in treatment effects
 apply the statistical method to realworld situations
 create a sample data distribution by taking a sample from a defined population and summarizing the data in a distribution
 construct appropriate graphical displays of distributions
 create sample data distributions and a sampling distribution
 recognize a sample data distribution is taken from a population distribution and the data distribution is what is seen in practice hoping it approximates the population distribution
 determine the appropriate scope of inference for the study design used
 understand that randomness should be incorporated into a sampling or experimental procedure
 recognize a sampling distribution is the distribution of a sample statistic (such as a sample mean or a sample proportion) obtained from repeated samples; the sampling distribution provides the key for determining how close to expect a sample statistic approximates the population parameter
 understand that when randomness is incorporated into a sampling or experimental procedure, probability provides a way to describe the "longrun" behavior of a statistic as described by its sampling distribution
 distinguish between the three types of study designs for collecting data (i.e., sample survey, experiment, and observational study) and will know the scope of the interpretation for each design type
 compare two or more groups by analyzing distributions
 determine if an association exists between two variables (e.g., pattern or trend in bivariate data) and use values of one variable to predict values of another variable
 create scatter plots for twovariable numerical data
 describe and interpret the patterns in variability for the distribution
 using simulation, determine the appropriate model to decide if there is a significant difference between two populations
 recognize that sample size impacts the precision with which estimates of the population parameters can be made (i.e., larger the sample size the more precision)
 determine the appropriate graphical display for each type of data
 collect data by designing a plan to collect appropriate data and employ the plan to collect the data