• # High School ESOL -- Academic Language of Mathematics

## A - Number System

• use the academic language of mathematics to describe how to find common factors and multiples; compute fluently with multi-digit numbers and find common factors and multiples in real-world scenarios, with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

## B - Expressions

• use the academic language of mathematics in applying and extending previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions in real-world scenarios with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

## C - Exponents, Expressions, and Equations

• use the academic language of mathematics in evaluating and solving expressions and equations using integer exponents in real-world scenarios with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

## D - Equations

• use the academic language of mathematics in analyzing and solving linear equations and inequalities in real-world scenarios with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

## E - Introduction to Functions

• use the academic language of mathematics to describe, define, evaluate, and compare functions in real-world scenarios with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

## F - Linear Functions

• use the academic language of mathematics to describe the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations in real-world scenarios with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• use the academic language of mathematics to describe, define, evaluate, and compare functions with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

## G - Linear Models and Tables

• use the academic language of mathematics when investigating and describing patterns of association in bivariate data in real-world scenarios with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

• use the academic language of mathematics in graphing, interpreting, and factoring quadratic and exponential functions with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

## I - Exponential Functions

• use the academic language of mathematics to interpret exponential functions with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

• # High School ESOL -- Academic Language of Science

## A - Cells

• use the academic language of science to recognize, identify, understand, and communicate information about the structure and function of cells needed to support living organisms orally and in writing with visual support, modeling, and scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

## B - Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

• use the academic language of science to recognize, identify, understand, and ask questions to investigate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the energy exchange of organisms with visual support, modeling, and scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

## C - Biology

• use the academic language of science to recognize, identify, understand, and compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis (number of divisions, number of daughter cells produced, genetically different or identical, sexual or asexual, ) orally and in writing with visual support, modeling, and scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

## D - Central Dogma of Biology

• use the academic language of science to recognize, identify, understand, and communicate information about the Central Dogma of Biology orally and in writing with visual support, modeling, and scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

## E - Inheritance

• use the academic language of science to recognize, identify, understand, and communicate information orally and in writing to explain the probabilities of inheritance with visual support, modeling, and scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

• # High School ESOL -- Academic Language of Social Studies

## A - Geography and Map Skills

• comprehend and use the academic language of Social Studies to explore physical features on the earth, natural resources, migration of people, climate, and natural disasters with visual support, modeling, sentence frames, and other scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• use the academic language of Social Studies to recognize, identify, describe, and explain how geography has influenced historical or current events using simple and some compound sentences with visual support, modeling, sentence frames, and other scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

## B - Government, Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams

• determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to types of governments, different levels of government, basic government concepts, types of economic systems, and basic economic concepts with visual support, modeling, sentence frames, and other scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

## C - History and Timelines

• comprehend and use the academic language of Social Studies, including world and S. history vocabulary specific to trade, political ideologies, culture, and religious beliefs with visual support, modeling, sentence frames, and other scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

## D - Political Symbols and Cartoons

• comprehend and use the academic language of Social Studies to interpret political cartoons (e.g. caricature, symbol, caption) with increasing accuracy and precision with visual support, modeling, and scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

## E - Reading in Social Studies

• recognize, identify, and describe the main idea, key details, sequence of events, and/or cause and effect with visual support, modeling, and scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

## F - Note-Taking

• use the academic language of Social Studies to take, organize, and maintain notes on topics studied with visual support, modeling, and scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

• # High School ESOL -- ESOL I Language

## A - Social and Instructional Language

• listen to, read, understand, and respond to a variety of written texts
• listen to, exchange, and understand simple spoken and written information in English on a variety of social and instructional topics and some academic topics that are culturally responsive to the backgrounds and contributions of students

• read with increasing accuracy and fluency to support comprehension
• understand phonics and use word-analysis skills in decoding words
• recognize letters and use the alphabet

## C - Grammar and Conventions

• read, understand, and use English syntax properly to create simple sentences, and some compound/complex sentences
• read, recognize, categorize, and use various parts of speech

## D - Vocabulary

• understand and use vocabulary related to places and buildings in the community (e.g., park, library, church, supermarket, shopping mall, police station, fire station) and important community members (e.g., crossing guard, firefighter, cashier, salesperson) in spoken interaction and written texts
• understand and use vocabulary related to self, family, home, rooms in the home, interests, pets, hobbies, and talents in spoken interaction and written texts
• understand and use vocabulary related to numbers, colors, shapes, size, weather, calendar, and time
• recognize, understand, and use vocabulary related to eating and drinking
• understand and use vocabulary related to directions (i.e., north, south, east, west), the seven continents, and animals native to each continent
• understand and use vocabulary related to school, various school environments (e.g., library, lunchroom, bathroom), school schedule, daily routine, and school subjects in spoken interaction and written texts

## E - Writing

• write short literary and informational texts with support

## F - United States Culture and Values

• recognize key documents related to the history of the United States and begin to understand and use vocabulary related to the foundational principles of the United States of America

• # High School ESOL -- ESOL I Literature

## A - Reading Literary Text

• identify key elements of poetry, specifically rhyme and stanzas
• identify first- and third-person point of view
• identify main ideas and some details when reading and listening to literary text
• recount and retell literary text with appropriate scaffolding
• use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, and/or plot
• compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres
• identify and describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story, the middle provides major events and challenges, and the ending concludes the action
• ask and answer questions - such as who, what, where, when, why, and how - to demonstrate understanding of key details in a literary text
• recount literary text by completing cloze activities, via dictation or literary summaries, or by means of story charts

## B - Reading Informational Text

• compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic
• identify and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text
• identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe
• ask and answer questions - such as who, what, where, when, why, and how - to demonstrate understanding of key details in an informational text
• identify main ideas and some details when reading and listening to informational text

## C - Writing

• use basic punctuation
• write a simple paragraph on a single topic
• compare and contrast two views on a single topic, using graphic organizers and other supports as needed
• use a variety of tools to produce and publish writing, including digital tools and collaboration with peers, with guidance and support from adults
• write simple sentences on familiar topics
• write persuasive phrases or sentences based on a familiar topic
• complete simple forms pertaining to basic personal information (e.g., name, address, date of birth)

## D - Speaking and Listening

• engage in collaborative conversations with peers and adults on a given topic with appropriate scaffolding
• consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the meaning or pronunciation of a word or determine its part of speech
• listen for and respond to simple questions such as who, what, where, when, why and how pertaining to a given topic
• listen for and recognize key vocabulary terms pertaining to a given topic
• plan and deliver a variety of simple oral presentations

• understand phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words
• read with increasing accuracy and fluency to support comprehension

• # High School ESOL -- ESOL II

## A - Reading Literary Text

• read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems at the appropriate proficiency level, with teacher or peer guidance, collaboration, and/or scaffolding as needed
• determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings
• compare and contrast elements of poetry from cultural, linguistic, and historical perspectives
• determine a theme and/or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed; provide a summary of the text
• compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres (e.g., stories and poems, historical novels, fantasy stories, and traditional literature from different cultures) in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics
• compare and contrast the experience of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the text
• identify first- and third-person point of view and provide details to support
• cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as work toward making inferences drawn from the text
• describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution
• analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot

## B - Reading Informational Text

• analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas
• read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the appropriate proficiency level
• determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments
• integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue
• determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text
• cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text
• trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not

## C - Writing

• develop and strengthen writing through collaboration, guidance, and support from peers and adults, by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach
• use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills
• write an informative/explanatory paragraph on a topic and convey ideas and information by selecting, analyzing, and organizing relevant content
• produce expository, persuasive, and/or narrative writing of varying lengths (sentences and paragraphs) for appropriate discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences
• draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research
• gather relevant information from a limited number of print and digital sources appropriate to the students’ proficiency level; assess the credibility of each source; quote and cite the data and conclusions of others appropriately
• write arguments to support claims with logical reasons and evidence
• write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences
• produce paragraphs with varying sentence types (e.g., simple, compound) with increasing cohesion in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience
• conduct short research projects to answer questions, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiries when appropriate

## D - Speaking and Listening

• utilize formal and informal language as appropriate for audience and context
• include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, images, music, sound) and visual displays in presentations to convey information
• present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically, and using descriptions, facts, and details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear and correct pronunciation
• interpret information presented in diverse media and formats
• plan and deliver oral presentations and reports on a variety of appropriate topics
• examine texts to determine the difference between fact and opinion
• engage in a range of collaborative discussions (e.g., one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own

## E - Grammar and Conventions

• demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing
• use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening
• demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking

## F - Vocabulary

• acquire and use general academic and domain-specific words and phrases appropriate for proficiency level with increasing precision
• determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases, reading and content, as appropriate to the students’ proficiency level
• demonstrate understanding of figurative language

• # High School ESOL -- ESOL III

## A - Reading Literary Text

• determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text
• cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text
• compare and contrast the experience of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the text
• analyze the elements of poetry (including tone, metaphor, simile, form, alliteration, rhyme, imagery, symbolism, and theme) from a variety of cultures, languages, and historic periods
• read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems at the appropriate proficiency level with teacher or peer guidance, collaboration, and/or scaffolding as needed
• analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g., how setting shapes the characters or plot)
• analyze texts in different forms or genres (e.g., stories and poems, historical novels, fantasy stories, and traditional literature from different cultures), comparing and contrasting themes and topics
• determine a theme and/or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text
• provide an objective summary of a variety of literary texts

## B - Reading Informational Text

• determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text
• trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims and recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced
• read and comprehend nonfiction texts at the appropriate proficiency level, with scaffolding as needed
• analyze how an author organizes a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas
• cite several pieces of textual evidence to support the thesis and main ideas
• determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints
• demonstrate comprehension of current and historical events gained from a variety of written sources
• determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone
• analyze how a text connects with other subject areas
• identify any inferences that can be drawn from the text to support thesis and main idea
• compare and contrast a text to an audio, video, or multimedia version of the text, analyzing how and why each medium’s portrayal of the subject differs (e.g., how the delivery of a speech affects the impact of the words)

## C - Writing

• utilize informal language from academic conversations to draft formal written texts
• produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience
• summarize opposing positions with evidence and evaluate and challenge evidence presented; summarize content-related material
• write routinely over extended time frames (e.g., time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (e.g., a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences
• apply analysis of the organizational structure of different text types (e.g., how arguments are organized by establishing clear relationships among claims, counterclaims, reasons, and evidence)
• write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence
• conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation
• collaborate with peers to engage in increasingly complex, grade-appropriate written exchanges and writing projects, using technology as appropriate
• develop and strengthen writing as needed by participating in the writing process of planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, with input from peers and adults

## D - Speaking and Listening

• contribute to class, group, and partner discussions, sustaining conversations on a variety of age- and grade-appropriate, academic topics by following turn-taking rules, asking and answering relevant, on-topic questions, affirming others, providing additional, relevant information, and paraphrasing key ideas
• plan and deliver a variety of oral presentations and reports on grade-appropriate topics that present evidence and facts to support ideas by using growing understanding of formal versus informal register
• adjust language choices according to the context (e.g., classroom, community), purpose (e.g., to persuade, to provide arguments or counterarguments), task, and audience (e.g., peers, teachers, guest lecturer)
• engage regularly, effectively, and extensively in a range of collaborative discussions (e.g., one- on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly
• evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different media (e.g., print or digital text, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea
• exchange oral and written information and ideas on topics related to contemporary events, history, and literature; demonstrate comprehension of these topics when presented through a variety of media
• include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify claims and findings and emphasize salient points
• delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence
• present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation

## E - Grammar and Conventions

• demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing
• demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking
• consult reference materials, both print and digital, to clarify the meaning or pronunciation of a word or determine the part of speech
• choose words and phrases to provide precise details, descriptions, comparisons, and ordered procedures

## F - Vocabulary

• acquire and accurately use general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression
• determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on reading and context clues
• use knowledge of morphology (e.g., affixes, Greek and Latin roots), context, reference materials to determine and learn the meaning of new words
• demonstrate understanding of subtleties of meaning in a variety of level appropriate works, including idiomatic expressions and figurative language

• # High School ESOL -- Language Development in the Content Areas I

• understand phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words
• read with increasing accuracy and fluency to support comprehension

## B - Reading Across the Content Areas

• compare and contrast content area texts that address related topics or themes
• develop and strengthen basic reading skills, reading a variety of text types, fiction and non- fiction, on culturally responsive themes related to social, instructional language and the language of the content areas, with appropriate scaffolding

## C - Writing

• develop and strengthen foundational writing skills, progressing from words and phrases to sentences and simple paragraphs, on culturally responsive topics, with scaffolding appropriate for the proficiency level, with increasing fluency and accuracy

## D - Grammar and Conventions

• revise draft texts by adding adjectives to nouns to create more detailed phrases and sentences on a variety of topics
• develop and strengthen use of standard English grammar and usage when writing and speaking, with scaffolding appropriate for the proficiency level
• develop and strengthen use of conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling

## E - Vocabulary

• acquire and use general social, instructional, and academic words and phrases on culturally responsive topics and themes such as self, hobbies, school, home, family, school, free time activities, and neighborhood and community, in speaking and writing

## F - Speaking and Listening

• engage in collaborative conversations with peers and adults on relevant, culturally responsive topics, with scaffolding appropriate for the proficiency level

• # High School ESOL -- Language Development in the Content Areas 2

## A - Reading Across the Content Areas

• determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text at the appropriate level of proficiency or with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• compare and contrast texts on relevant topics and themes in different forms or genres, with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• compare and contrast the experience of reading a variety of content area texts on relevant topics and themes to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the text, with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings, with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• read and comprehend a variety of content area texts on relevant, culturally responsive topics or themes, including fiction and nonfiction, at the appropriate level of proficiency or with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• explain and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, and begin to recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced, with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says as well as work toward making inferences drawn from the text, with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

## B - Writing

• write summaries of texts and experiences by using complete sentences and keywords (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers), with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• develop and strengthen writing as needed by participating in the writing process of planning, revising, editing, rewriting, with input from peers and adults, with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• produce writing on relevant, culturally responsive topics and themes, in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience, with increasing clarity and coherence, with appropriate scaffolding
• collaborate with peers to engage in increasingly complex, grade-appropriate written exchanges, with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level, using technology as appropriate
• conduct short research projects on culturally responsive topics to answer a question, drawing on sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation, with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• leverage oral language from academic conversations to draft formal written texts on academic topics, with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• write routinely over extended time frames (i.e., time for research, reflection, revision) and shorter time frames (i.e., a single sitting, a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences, with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• synthesize vocabulary, phrases, and patterns in extended written discourse, with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

## C - Grammar and Conventions

• demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking, with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

## D - Vocabulary

• use knowledge of morphology (e.g., affixes, Greek and Latin roots), context, reference materials, and visual cues to determine the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words on familiar and new topics
• acquire and begin to accurately use general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression
• use dictionaries and other reference resources, print and digital, to determine the meaning and pronunciation and part of speech of unfamiliar words
• determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on reading and context clues, with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

## E - Speaking and Listening

• engage regularly in collaborative discussions (e.g., one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on culturally relevant topics, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly, with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• present claims and findings, descriptions, facts, details, and examples; beginning to use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation, with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• exchange oral and written information and ideas on a variety of topics, such as contemporary events, history, and literature; demonstrate comprehension when presented through a variety of media, with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• justify opinions and positions or persuade others by making connections between ideas, with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

• # High School ESOL -- Language Development in the Content Areas 3

## A - Reading Across the Content Areas

• determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings, with scaffolding appropriate to the level of proficiency
• compare and contrast texts on related topics or themes, including fiction and nonfiction, in different forms or genres
• determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, with scaffolding appropriate to the level of proficiency
• read and comprehend a variety of content area texts on relevant, culturally responsive topics and themes at the appropriate level of proficiency or with scaffolding appropriate to the level of proficiency
• compare and contrast the experience of reading a variety of content area texts on relevant themes to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the text, with scaffolding appropriate to the level of proficiency
• explain and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and recognizing when irrelevant evidence is introduced, with scaffolding appropriate to the level of proficiency
• cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as work toward making inferences drawn from the text, with scaffolding appropriate to the level of proficiency

## B - Writing

• write routinely over extended time frames (i.e., time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (i.e., a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences, with appropriate scaffolding
• utilize oral language from academic conversations to draft formal written texts on academic topics and themes, with scaffolding appropriate to the level of proficiency
• write summaries of texts and experiences by using complete sentences and keywords (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers), with scaffolding appropriate to the level of proficiency
• synthesize vocabulary, phrases, and patterns in extended written discourse, with scaffolding appropriate to the level of proficiency
• produce clear and coherent writing on relevant, culturally responsive topics and themes, in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience, with scaffolding appropriate to the level of proficiency
• develop and strengthen writing as needed by participating in the writing process of planning, revising, editing, rewriting, with input from peers and adults, with scaffolding appropriate to the level of proficiency
• conduct research projects of increasing length to answer a question, drawing on sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation, with scaffolding appropriate to the level of proficiency
• collaborate with peers to engage in increasingly complex, grade-appropriate written exchanges, with scaffolding appropriate to the level of proficiency, using technology as appropriate

## C - Grammar and Conventions

• demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking, with scaffolding appropriate to the level of proficiency

## D - Vocabulary

• use dictionaries and other reference resources, print and digital, to determine the meaning and pronunciation and part of speech of unfamiliar words
• acquire and accurately use general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression
• use knowledge of morphology (e.g., affixes, Greek and Latin roots), context, reference materials, and visual cues to determine the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words on familiar and new topics
• determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on reading and context clues

## E - Speaking and Listening

• engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (e.g., one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on culturally responsive topics, building on others ’ ideas and expressing their own clearly, with appropriate scaffolding
• exchange oral and written information and ideas on topics related to contemporary events, history, and literature; demonstrate comprehension when presented through a variety of media, with scaffolding appropriate to the level of proficiency
• justify opinions and positions or persuade others by making connections between ideas and articulating relevant textual evidence or background knowledge, with scaffolding appropriate to the level of proficiency
• present claims and findings, descriptions, facts, details, and examples; beginning to use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation, with scaffolding appropriate to the level of proficiency

• # High School ESOL -- Language Development in the Content Areas 4

## A - Reading Across the Content Area

• explain and evaluate the argument and the specific claims in a text, and begin to recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced, with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• compare and contrast the experience of reading a variety of content area texts to listening or to viewing the text with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• read and comprehend a variety of content area texts on relevant, culturally responsive topics or themes, including fiction and non-fiction, at the appropriate level of proficiency
• compare and contrast texts on relevant topics and themes in different forms or genres with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text at the appropriate level of proficiency or with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• cite textual evidence to support analysis of the text; make inferences from the text, with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

## B - Writing

• conduct short, as well as more sustained, research projects to answer questions (including self- generated questions) or solve problems; narrow or broaden inquiries when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subjects, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• utilize oral language from academic conversations to draft formal written texts on academic topics and themes, appropriate to the level of proficiency
• write summaries of texts and experiences by using complete sentences and keywords (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers), appropriate to the level of proficiency
• write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences
• synthesize vocabulary, phrases, and patterns in extended written discourse, appropriate to the level of proficiency
• gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citations with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• develop and strengthen writing as needed, with some guidance and support from peers and adults, by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed
• collaborate with peers to engage in increasingly complex, grade-appropriate written exchanges, appropriate to the level of proficiency, using technology as appropriate

## C - Grammar and Conventions

• demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking, with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level

## D - Vocabulary

• use dictionaries and other reference resources, print and digital, to determine the meaning, pronunciation, and part of speech of unfamiliar words
• use knowledge of morphology (e.g., affixes, Greek and Latin roots), context, and visual cues to determine the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words
• acquire and accurately use general and domain specific words and phrase, apply vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression

## E - Speaking and Listening

• exchange oral and written information and ideas on topics related to contemporary events, science, history, and literature; demonstrate comprehension when presented through a variety of media, appropriate to the level of proficiency
• initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (e.g., one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest
• evaluate and/or reflect on a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence with scaffolding appropriate to the proficiency level
• delineate a speaker's argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence