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Gwinnett County Public Schools

Appendix E:Terms and Definitions




An English language proficiency test that measures students' academic English language skills.


The ACT is a standardized test used for college admissions. It covers four academic skill areas: English, Mathematics, Reading, and Scientific Reasoning, and offers an optional direct writing test.

Advanced Placement (AP)

A program in the United States created by the College Board which offers college-level curricula and examinations to high school students. American colleges and universities may grant placement and course credit to students who obtain high scores on the examinations. The AP program gives students the chance to tackle college-level work while still in high school.

Beating the Odds (BTO)

A statistical analysis that compares a school’s actual performance on the College and Career Ready Performance Index (CCRPI) with the performance of schools with similar characteristics across the state. Schools that perform higher than similar schools are considered “Beating the Odds.” It is important to note that schools that “Beat the Odds” may still have low CCRPI scores and/or gaps in performance.

Black, Indigenous, People of Color (BIPOC)

Black, Indigenous, and People of Color include individuals who identify as Black, Native American, Hispanic, or Asian.

Career & Technical Education (CTE)

These courses prepare students for postsecondary education and the demands of the 21st century economy, including learning the relevance of combining technical skills with academic knowledge. CTE courses are offered at the middle and high school levels.

College & Career Ready Performance Index (CCRPI)

Georgia’s tool for annually measuring how well its schools, districts, and the state are helping students achieve their goals. It provides a comprehensive road map to help educators, families, and community members promote and improve college and career readiness for all students.

Cultural Proficiency

Organizations and individuals show cultural competence when they accept and respect cultural differences, continue self- assessment of cultural awareness, pay careful attention to the dynamics of cultural differences, continually expand their cultural knowledge and resources, and adopt culturally relevant service models to better meet the needs of all populations.

Discipline Disproportionality

The number students from a particular group with in-school suspensions and out- of-school suspensions being lower or higher than one would expect based on their percentage of total enrollment.

Diversity Index

A measure of the level of racial/ethnic diversity in the district.

Economically Disadvantaged

According to the Governor’s Office of Student Achievement (GOSA), "economically disadvantaged" is used to describe a student who is eligible for the free-or-reduced-priced meal program.

Educational Effectiveness Surveys (EES)

The Center for Educational Effectiveness (CEE) has partnered with buildings and districts of all sizes to successfully administer the Staff, Student, and Family Surveys. The surveys were first administered in Gwinnett County Public Schools in the 2021- 2022 school year.

English Learners (EL)

Students who are not yet proficient in the English language and who receive language services until reaching proficiency. Many English learners come from non-English speaking homes and backgrounds.

Financial Efficiency Start Rating (FESR)

The goal of the star rating is to provide a comparison of district spending per student with overall academic performance.

Free & Reduced Lunch Program (FRL) / Free Lunch Program (Free)

The following students are eligible to receive free lunches through this program:

* All children in households receiving benefits from GA SNAP, the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR), or GA TANF

* Foster children that are under the legal responsibility of a foster care agency or court

* Children participating in their school’s Head Start program

* Children who meet the definition of homeless, runaway, or migrant

* Children from households with incomes within the limits of the Federal Income Eligibility Guidelines

Full Academic Year (FAY)

Students are considered as FAY if they are enrolled 65% of the number of days from the start date of the school year to the close of the state testing window.

Georgia Department of Education (GaDOE)

The GaDOE oversees public education throughout the state, ensuring that laws and regulations pertaining to education are followed and that state and federal money appropriated for education is properly allocated to local school systems.

Georgia Milestones Assessment System (Milestones)


The Georgia Milestones Assessment System is a comprehensive summative assessment program and represents a single system of summative assessments that span all three levels of the state’s educational system—elementary, middle, and high school. The system is designed to send consistent signals about students’ preparedness for the next level, be it the next grade, course, or endeavor, such as entering college or beginning a career after leaving the K–12 educational system.

Georgia's HOPE Scholarship (HOPE)

Georgia's HOPE Scholarship is available to Georgia high school graduates with a minimum 3.0 grade point average. The scholarship provides money to assist students with a portion of the tuition cost at a HOPE Scholarship eligible college or university.

Gifted/Talented (G/T)

The gifted program provides academic challenges by extending the district’s Academic Knowledge and Skills curriculum. Students are identified and placed in gifted education based on criteria established by the Georgia General Assembly and the Georgia Board of Education. The criteria include an initial referral, an evaluation, and an eligibility review by a local school team.

Governor's Office of Student Achievement (GOSA)

GOSA is a state education agency supports accountability and transparency through strategic data use and collaboration with education stakeholders to advance student success.

Historically Underserved

Historically underserved students include students who identify as Black/African American, Hispanic, American Indian, students with disabilities, English learners, and students qualifying for free meals.

International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Program

A future-ready program that builds students’ inquiring mindset, fosters their desire to learn and prepares them to excel at their careers and lead meaningful lives.


ISS refers to in-school suspensions. OSS refers to out-of-school suspensions.


The representation of a group in a category that exceeds our expectations for that group or differs substantially from the representation of others in that category.

Percent Proficient or Distinguished (%P/D)

The Milestones performance categories are ordered as % Beginning Learner; % Developing Learner; % Proficient Learner; and % Distinguished Learner. Thus % P/D represents a combined percentage of the two highest performance categories.

PSAT 8/9

The PSAT is part of the College Board suite of college preparatory assessments. It is most often administered to students in preparation for taking the SAT. The PSAT 8/9 is provided to students in grades 8 and 9. The test covers Reading/Writing and Math.


The SAT is a college admissions test owned by the College Board. It is most often administered to high school students, and benchmark scores are provided for college readiness. The test covers Reading/Writing and Math.


The Society for Human Resources Management Certified Professional (SHRM-CP) and the Human Resources Certification Institute (HRCI) are leading organizations in human resources certification.

Student Growth Percentile (SGP)

Describes the amount of growth a student has demonstrated relative to academically-similar students from across the state. Growth percentiles range from 1 to 99, with lower percentiles indicating lower academic growth and higher percentiles indicating higher academic growth. With SGPs, all students—regardless of their prior achievement level—have the opportunity to demonstrate all levels of growth.

Students with Disabilities (SWD)

Students with some physical, mental, or learning impairment that qualifies them to receive specialized services through an Individualized Education Program (IEP).


Insufficient presence of particular groups of students in a category; a smaller number than would be predicted by their proportion in the population.

Universal Screeners

The administration of an assessment to all students to help identify students for intervention. Universal screeners can screen for Math, ELA, or behavioral intervention (student wellbeing).